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Sun Of History

 Humanity went for its development way for ages and ages. Even for thousand of years, till it reached the resent form, from advancement, luxury and civilization, but we can not deny the prints of the leading civilization, which laid the first steps and features of this civilization, it pushed humanity to the road of development and nourishment.

The Egyptian civilization is regarded as the mother civilization in the history of humanity; the Pharaohs are the ones who opened the doors of history, so that the sun of knowledge, art, innovation may shine for the coming generations and civilizations. Wonder upon the glorious face of Egypt and its marvelous unique civilization.

After the ancient Egyptian civilization lived for thousands years, and reached the top of its development and nourishment, the sun of this civilization vanished from Egypt due to the series of foreign invasions upon Egypt, while an other civilizations shined in other places to continue the course of humanity

Side by side with the fading of the Egyptian civilization, the Hieroglyphic language disappeared, by time, and the following generations failed to explain what the Egyptian monument meant. They depended in their knowledge on the words of the historians who visited Egypt and wrote on it lead by (Herodot), who was right in some of what he wrote and was mistaken on many other things.

The Egyptian history which the world know is deliberately deformed, uncompleted in many times, they read it written in a foreign pen which did not lived in this civilization. They have not listened to the Egyptian civilization while it was talking about it self.

The other reason behind this darkness is due to the vicious hands that deformed this history. Whether individuals or rulers or invaders, many times the thieves tread to stele the wealth of the Pharaohs tombs in the ancient history and modern ones.

When the tomb of “Tout Ankhamoun” was discovered with all its marvelous wealth, the whole world talked about it for its hugeness and beauty, the scientists and researchers assured, that if the wealth was belong to this little king , what about the wealth in the tombs of the huge strong Pharaohs, like Ramsis the Second, Tohoutmos and Akhnaton. And others. A lot of tombs where discovered to be actually stolen and destroyed.

This is beside, what the Pharaohs kings of Egypt destroyed by their hands for the previous monuments to their age- for political reasons- which was the badly habit to them.

History can remember many incidents indicating this fact, when Tohoutmos the Third, took the thorn of Egypt after the realm of Queen Hatshebsuit, he ordered to ruin her imprints, and abolish her name, specially her statue in which she was wearing men’s wear with bear and Pharaohs Crown.

In another incident, the Pharaohs was ordered to destroy the imprints of King “Akhnaton” after his death. (Akhnaton) was the one who called for a religious revolution, and believed in one God “Atone” with the sun symbol, he also held a new capital for Egypt, which made the public and religious people rebel against him, and destroyed his city “Akhtatoun”, till its remnants discovered in Tel El Amrna.

The great king  “Rams Second” was known as “the master of builders”, he founded many huge statues, religious castles, which was known to be the most huge in the Egyptian Art. He was fond of steeling the monuments of the previous kings to him and then erasing their names, and putting his name instead, all this beside what the invaders have done from demolishing and ruining, whether intently or to use the stones of these monuments to build new buildings to be

The French troops to Egypt was behind the resolving of the darkness of the Egyptian history, education mended what days ruined, when one of the troop’s solder found a Pharaonic stone written in three languages, one of them was Hieroglyphic, where as Champion- who was fond by the Egyptian history- succeeded in reading the letters of the hieroglyphic, there we got a readable language which opened the page of the Egyptian history again.

There all the symbols in Hieroglyphic language on the walls of the tombs, castles and statues.  the ancient Egyptian civilization was nourished again, the statues and panels, where not just primitive drawings anymore, but deep innovative thought, the whole world read the ancient Egyptian literature, and was so amazed for its quality, and they know more about the arts, life and thought of this civilization.

As time passes, and many monumental discoveries, more details were acknowledged, and laid under study and serious surveying specialized in studying this civilization and its monuments – in most of the world’s countries- known as (Egyptology).

The Egyptian wisdom was obvious. They were the greatest architectures and builders; their glorious monument is a witness to this fact as the pyramid that is considered one of the world’s seven wonders .they called for eternity and believed that god is one,  the  first who searched for mines in history, they show amazing skills in jewelry and ornaments with their simple tools, they knew the weaving and cloth manufacturing and even more they exported it, Europe stayed till the last century using very similar methods to which the ancient Egyptians used to apply.

They build marine fleets that was not known to the world before, they were clever in battles arts and setting military plans, they were of the best sculptures, they tamed the most strong stones and made from it some rare master pieces, with no similar in history, they knew  mathematics, horoscopes, science and body perseverance – they were clever also in chemistry too, they composed number of equations and metals. They were first who invented the musical instruments, besides dancing art and literature, first who used symbols, pun in their writings.

Frankly, it is very difficult to know all what they initiated in the history , all what is written in history books and what scientists reached is just a slight features for this mother civilization, it is impossible to mention the civilization of three thousand years in some papers, every piece needs books and books to describe it.

As every thing is mortal, humans, time and civilization, the only lasting element as a witness is the arts and innovations of this era, this will be our lead to this simple knowledge as the ancient Egyptian wise man said

” Generations went to where we do not know, no one returns to us to tell about what happened their, their castles and monuments were demolished, nothing left except the sayings of wise men and what books recorded”

This is beside, the artist’s innovation, finally, we should know that the Egyptian ancient art was not just a primitive naive art, as some tried to depict, it did not reached perfection. As some thinker mentioned ” There is no art that reached perfection, but it will always yarn for it” This is applied to all arts in all ages.

The river Nile is the life of Egypt, and fertility and growing, as the first man settled on its banks, their life occurred and new era of history, which is different from what it was before, thus he know settlements, exchanging life of wondering, for food and shelter by the stable agricultural life, thus this was the first step towards civilization, and there the mind of the Egyptians started to develop as a start to the new human settlement.

Egypt succeeded to enforce its civilization in an early age; this was reflected in its unique art that was distinguished in expression. It became with particular features that made the one realize the difference from the very first minute between the other civilizations which was influenced by the Egyptian one, but after  three thousand years which was called the age before monuments till the era of king Narmer (Mina) who ruled Egypt and unified its northern and southern poles in one strong state, which was the announcer of an ancient Egyptian history and Pharaohs civilization which lasted for other three thousand years divided into three main phases started from establishing the first Pharaonic family.. The era of the old state, then the era of the middle state then the modern state the summit of the Egyptian civilization’s development.

Surveyors and scientists classified the Egyptian history to transitional eras and decades according to the time serial and classification BC

1- Early era The first & second families  3000:2705

2- Old State From the third to the sixth family   2705:2155

3- The first transitional era From the seventh to the tenth family  2155:2134

4- The medium state eleventh and twelfth families 2134:1781

5- Second transition era from 13th to 17th family  1550:1781

6- Modern state From the 18th   to 20th  family          1070 : 1550

7- Following eras – The 21st to 30 Th family (The Libyan & Ethiopian kings & El Sawy& The Fares rule & the last national family )  332 : 1070 

– Romanian Baltic era (From the year 332 till the Arabs opened Egypt in 640)

The early era was the beginning of settlement, and various life types over the banks of the Nile, the canals were dug to irrigate lands, seeding of plants for better life, the availability of a place to include a nation with a ruler and leader of a group, These groups were united over the Egyptian land in two states… The northern and southern states, till Mina came and unified both of them to become one Egyptian state under his rule , since this era, occurred a single political and social and administrative system, the pharaoh was known with the ruler or the God, in addition the Egyptians believed in the immortality of sole and its after life after taking its punishment over the hands of gods after death and passing the darkness gates.

As the Pharaohs was the ruler of both poles , there occurred rituals for these festivals and it became inherited in the history of Egypt, The Pharaoh is this festival should wear the white crown (the crown of the south) then to wear the red one (of the north), the king is to end the festival by wondering around a fence as a symbol to his power to cease enemies to enter Egypt.

The word ” Pharo ” means “the huge house” meaning the rule house of king’s castle then it became the ruler’s name.

The ancient state era started by king “Zoser,” the beginning of the third family, which was an announcement to a new era to an Egyptian civilization. A distinguished start advent to building and art, this returns to “Amihoteb” minister who was talented in engineering, literature, medicine who changed the traditional building methods, he exchanged craved stones instead of wood and mud, he executed the first stone pyramid in history, it was the start of the construction revolution which history recorded to this civilization, This minister has paid tribute to the artist in his life and after his death, there were bronze statues engraved for him while sitting bold headed, over his body a transparent cloth, over his knee a papyrus with  the son of “Petah”.

In this era, the Pharaohs took the description of God, for the first time, he was given the title ” the kind hearted God – NetherNefer”, in the realm of King “Senefro”, the first king of the fourth family. The opening campaigns for Noba Libia, a lot of buildings were established, Dahshour pyramid, his predecessors took the example and built their miracle pyramids in Giza, Khofo, Kefren and Mankera for what they got of power and civilization.

As the fifth family came, a lot of religions came with new Gods; the Pharaohs were concerned with building royal tombs, temples. In the mean while the central rule for the capital Menf became weaker, thus the power of the governors became stronger, which lead to their independence. In the first transition era for the Egyptian civilization, the weakness became more obvious in the fifth family, till the Rhine came “Tee” the founder of the sixth family, after the king “Srkeraa” who stayed a short time came “Beouby first”, who was a strong ruler returned stability and his rule lasted for half a century, his monuments are too many in San El Hagger which indicated to his strong tendency towards building, then came “Beouby second” who ruled Egypt for the longest time history know about, extended for 94 years, when he became old, the country was overwhelmed by revolution, followed by steeling , a lot of ethics deteriorated as an impact to mess that filled the states, beside the starvation due to fluids, which was the last broken straw.

The seventh and eighth families do not have any impacts in the Egyptian history, till “Heracliopolic” took the thorn on Ahnisia as the founder of the ninth and tenth families, then war took place between the kings of Thebs in the south and independent Ahnisia’s kings, the northern king failed several times, till he became victorious at the end leaded by “Mentouhotby second” who returned the unity of Egypt once more starting the new era in the history of Egypt which is “the medium state”.

The Pharaoh “Mentehoutby second” great efforts for reform and reconstruction of a strong state as it was before, he was concerned by insuring the boarders, linking Noba and Oases to his realm, then “Sanikh Karaa” or “Metohotbi third”, then “Neb Tawy raa”, or “Mentouhotbi fourth” to continue the comprehensive economic and artistic upraise, This era was considered a real introduction tot he Rhine of the 12th family, which was regarded one of the greatest family who ruled Egypt. 

 

King “Amenmahat” the founder of the 12th family whom saw that “Thebs” become no longer suitable as a capital to Egypt with its two poles, thus, they took a new capital towards the north between Fayoum and Menf, this king succeeded in planting security in the hearts of the civilians, he was so fair, he planned the regions and distributed the irrigation water in between them fairly, he assigned the regions rulers to collect taxes, assigning the civilians, taking care of agriculture and irrigation. He exempted the regions with draught catastrophes from paying taxes.

“Amenmahat first” talking to his son Senosret first describing his deeds:

      “I was seeding the yeast that god of love loves

       The Nile gave me in every wide valley

  I have never left anyone to complain of hunger or thirst

       All people lived under comprehensive peace

          Because what I have done to them “

It was known about the kings of the 12th family that they have good relations with other countries, they secured the Egyptian boarders with fortress in the south and with Asia and Libya.

Before the end of this era, Egypt witness one of the weakest realms, were it was ruled by weak kings, and for the first time in its history it was invaded by foreign invaders “Sextons ” meaning “the foreign ruler”.

The Sextons ruled the delta and Upper Egypt till “Kousia” (1570:1675 before Christ) where as the kings of Thebs continued to rule North Egypt, also Nuba took its independence from the realm of Egypt under Koush kings. In the era of King “Camous”, he battled with the invaders and became victorious and through them out of Egypt, he started his campaign successfully, and his brother “Ahmous” continued, who lead the army to throw the Sextons out of Egypt, regaining menf, then Afaris, following them till the Palestinian lands, returning back victoriously founding a new era for the 18th family to lead which was one of the old history marks, the Rhine shifted to “Tohotmos first”, who continued the movement and extended the boarders to Donkla in Sudan south ward and Forat North word. He was followed by “Tohoutmos second” who got married to “Hatshibsuit”, his half sister, who ruled Egypt after his death, for the first time Egypt to be rules by a woman, she restricted the thorn to “Tohoutmos third”, the most famous monuments for her was the Marine temple in Luxor – she proved to be one of the best rulers for Egypt, she set the rules for security, stability to the countries, and trade flourished more and more. She used to say

 “My utmost concern is to revive what is ruined and continue what Was not built “

She ruled Egypt for 22 years, till her son became old – “Tohoutmos third” – one of the most famous Pharaohs, he was very advanced military wise, and was well known for his tendency for extension, he extended Egypt’s power over Sudan, Palestine, Syria the Mediterranean islands, he prepared a trade, artistic and urban glory era for Egypt, as a proof the festival whole in Karnek temple.

This glory increases in the era of “Amenhouteb second” and “Amenhouteb third”, it was the best glory eras in the history of Egypt , with stability and luxury, there occurred the huge castles , , parks, artificial lacks, statues with gold engravings.

When “Amenhouteb fourth” took the Rhine, he named himself “Akhnatoun”, who called for religious revolution claiming to pray to one god, whose symbolized by the sun “Atone”, he left all other religions , calling for his new religion with his wife “Nefertity”, who participated with him in rule and call, this call was not successful after “Tout Ankhamoun” took the thorn and returned  praying “Amoun” and the capital to “Thebs”, he died on this 20th, his wealth was famous by the tomb he left as one of the greatest tombs in the history of Egypt.

The eras of wealth continued till the 19th family “Sity first” and “Rams Second”, where as it deteriorated due to political and religious conflict, where religious people won and  Amoun saints ruled Egypt for the first time, “Horihour” was thronged a king on the larger bank of Egypt in (1090 before Christ), it became a religious rule, then “Shoushnak”, with Libyan origin the rule of Egypt in (950 before Christ), then came the 21st and 22nd families till (730 before Christ), till the Sawion kings ruled for 15 years, ended with Ethiopians rule, then came the Ashourians to Nouba and settled there.

When the king “Besmatek” appeared, he returned the stability to Egypt, its architectural, artistic and literature renaissance in the twenty-sixth family, it was a temporary return to the Egyptian soul.

Then came “Cambize” to invade Egypt in (525 before Christ) then Alexander in (332 before Christ), who set the Macdounian rule in Egypt till Egypt became a Roman state in (30 before Christ) and the sun of Pharaohs faded with its leadership allover the world, then the Pharaohs monuments stayed as a witness to their greatness and history, their leadership in the humanity history.

Life In Ancient Egypt:

Thought three thousand years, the Egyptian lived to built the first humanity civilizations, in the eras of Pharaohs the Egyptians features were formed, beside his unique arts over the banks of the Nile, sun of the valley, kind clay, the Egyptian was known for kind heart, he lived to worship three things, God, rule, family, he obeys the sentences of god, fears after life , respects the rules of the ruler as the son of God. Agriculture taught him love of settlement, respect of family , the Egyptian farmer plants since the start of humanity, waiting for the flood which marks the beginning of the year in 19 June- in this period the water of the Nile covers all agricultural lands, he permits himself a rest time for four months , after the water returns back , he starts his hard work, from the sun shine to its set, to start the (Berit) season, or growth, thus he seeds and store water, building dams, organizing water for the next coming four months, when the third season and the last (Shemo) or the dry season starts – from mid March- mid July- the farmer starts to rip his fruits.

The Egyptian farmer knows that the land is not his own, but it is owned to the king, but he plants, irrigates , raise cattle, poultry, fishing to feed the nation, for whatever ears and rulers.  As for the Egyptian employee, was the one who learned and became eloquent to qualify him to be a governmental employee, which placed him in a better position social and occupational wise than the farmer.

The rulers encouraged this class specially under the reform program which the rulers of the 12th family adopted, they hired a big number of educated employees to run the state’s affairs, there formed a new class of bourgeoisie   which played a prominent role in the administrative all prime ministers and ministers depend on employees to scatter their power over the country, even more, the employee became the linking point between the ruler and the ruled. There the employee became an example, and every father hoped to have an employee or an educated son, the middle class also is formed of the solders, who are serving the army of the Pharaoh to stop the troops coming from Asia or from the south or to merge Nouba to Egypt .. another category is the clever specialized manufacturers and constructors  who made the great Egyptian civilization survived for ages. The artist were working in temples of schools to perform what is required from them. Some of which became so famous and was asked for by name, like the talented architecture “Amenhouteb”, who built the step pyramid of Zoser, and the artist engineer “Senenmout”, who built the temple of Marine Deir, the tombs were not named after any artiest due tot he sacredness of the work in service for God, these are the persons forming the middle class. As for the third part, they were the labors participating in performing the artistic architectural works, they are not specialized, but labor class who do not get appreciation from society.

They were educating their youngsters that

” whoever do his best , will become a writer, or a reverend employee , with respect in society, whoever fails, will be from the labor class whom are inferiors. “

 

Egypt‘s Rulers:

Since the start of the state three thousand years before Crest, and the unified kingdom was formed under king Narmer (Mina) and there came emperors  some set bases and rules for the state, as an example “Sezostrees third” in (1881 before Christ) set a central strong administrative  and political systems to manage ruling the state which extended from north at the Mediterranean sea till the south at Nouba.

The top of the rule is the Pharaoh who is the god representative on earth, the link between the real world and the unknown world, or between earth and sky, he has a prime minister who have a decided role in a document called  “the responsibility of the minister”

 which the Pharaoh state and declare in the minister’s hiring ceremony, this declaration urges the appliance of justice.. the Pharaoh says to his minister:

 “Take the role of a minister, be keen on all what is related to this task , it include aid to all state… frankly speaking, the job of a minister is so bitter not a sweet job.. It do not utter unfair sentences, Gods do not like injustice. Receive people you know and you do not know in the same manner, who is close to you and who is not”.

The role of the minister is to achieve the ethical system, social amalgamation in the country, after meeting the Pharaoh every day, he is to follow all works in the state.. judiciary, agriculture, irrigation, army, police, public system, trade, taxes, public money , hiring employees in various state positions in the 42 regions forming Egypt.

In a certificate written by “Rakhmiraa” – the followed example- in the  Rhine of “Touhotmos third” came the following:

“I have judge fairly between the simple humble man and the one with power , I helped the weak to encounter the strong, I have handled the anger of the vicious man, made the miser surrender, helped the widow , helped the inheritor to get his inheritance, I have never closed my ear against the complains of those who needs something, I have never accepted any bride”.

The Famous Pharaohs:

The history of Egypt was full of the great Pharaohs, their monuments and names lasted forever, and this was achieved by history memorizing them and their great civilizations. There are various names that left a strong impact in the ancient and contemporary history.

Ahmous : Battled the Sextons and founded the ancient strong Egyptian Empire.

Hatshebsuit   : First lady ruling Egypt, in an UN-precedent era in the history of Egypt.

Touhotmos III : Best military leader in the world

Akhnaton: The philosopher Pharaohs who call for god’s unity And worshipping one God, his era was an artistic and though advent in the history of ancient Egyptian civilization.

Tout Ankhamoun: The famous allover the world with his wealth and monuments

Rams II : Best Pharaoh, named best constructor for his glorious buildings and monuments.

Ahmous: Battled the Sextons:

The Sextons invaded Egypt wanting its wealth, because of the weakness of its rulers by that time, they could not control all regions. some regions stayed under the realm of the Egyptians, they agreed to pay bribes for the Sextons, the Nubian rulers took advantage of the situation and became independent.

By the founding of the 17th family in the Egyptian history , which was ruling Thebs, it was the spirit for nationalism, this family gave Egypt strong  leaders believed in the urgency of liberating the country, and throwing out the invaders in a series of courageous wars, they flamed the ambitious feeling in the hearts of the Egyptians, they declared rebellion against Sextons, and who ally with them, there occurred king “Sekenn Raa” named courageous who lead an army of the civilians, farmers, labors, craftsmen in a sacred liberation war, when this king was dead as a martyr, his son “Camose” took over , and was succeeded to encircle the Sextons in their capital “Afaris”, by that time the number of the Egyptian army was 480 thousand warier , it seems that the spirits of the warriors and the civilians were so high under the realm of “Ahmous”. The arm armaments were made of Bronze, there were full troops of knights, military bicycles, pulled by horses.

“Ahmous” was successful in getting the Sextons fully out of Egypt, even out of Palestine and Syria, after getting them out, he went to Nouba to merge it again to Egypt.

Thus, “Ahmous” unified Egypt’s land once more under a centralized rule “Thebs” he deserves to be the founder of another new family which is the 18th family, which is regarded as one of the most historical eras in the history of Egyptand the founder of “the modern state”.

Akhnaton’sun and Tel El Amrna Arts:

He is the philosopher, thinker, looking for reality- as he named himself- the first calling to pray one God, he denied worshipping many Gods.

He is Amenhouteb fourth, naming himself “Akhnaton”, he is the son of two great Pharaohs in the Egyptian history in “Thebs”. His father is “Amenhouted third” and his mother is the queen “Tee”.

Albeit his luxurious life, he contemplated a lot  and reached a very advanced thinking which pushed him to believe that God is one. “Aton”” with the sun symbol, with its rays as hands holding the keys of life “ankh”, he discarded the idea of incarnating God in a human shape. He linked the symbol of justice, truth, reality with God “maat”, no child no wife.

We he took the Rhine, he build temples for praying the single God “Atone”, and forbids praying more than one God. He set “Atone prayers” as a charter to his religion, after five years he realized that it is impossible to convince the religious saints of Amoun, as a result of their refusal to the new religion, he founded a new capital named “Akhtatoun” near Tel El Amerna, south of present Minya Governorate, passed an order to stop worshipping Amoun, he called for his religion for 12 years albeit the strong attack against him, till the movement became weak in his last days, and gradually people returned to pray Amoun once more. It was not know for sure whether he died  in a normal way or he was killed, he just disappeared.

This period of the Pharaonic history, which did not exceed the quarter of a century, which scientists call “Tel El Amrna”, was more glorious when the city “Aoukhtaton” built by Akhnaton being discovered, as the rulers followed him consider him as an out law from their habits and destroyed his city totally.

The remnants of this city assure the difference of this art in the era of Akhnaton than the other eras. The king wants his art to cop with his vision. “Bek” the great sculpture at that time said: “the king was his master in arts”.

Albeit, this was too exaggerated, but it indicated that he got a very particular mind and though, which is too different then others in his age. He searched for truth and called himself “the searcher for truth”, this was so clear in his art, not depicting stagnant objects, and he liberated the Egyptian artists from the ties of routine, and left them to express what they feel in artistic works.

In the previous ages, the artists were obliged to depict the king and queen in a certain way according to set rules, but in tal EL Amena, they were free to express what they want, like showing the Pharaoh in his daily life with his family, in his house while playing with his wife and little girls. In other scenes, the queen “Nefertiti” was seen kissing the king in many occasions. He was the first Pharaoh accepting to let artists depict him with his deformities, without any decoration, as fat and ugly, which made some people thought he was sick.

But his faith in his philosophy made him believe in his vision.

out Ankhamoun   “The Golden King”:    (1347: 1339 BC)

Albeit Tout Ankhamoun took the Rhine while very young and had not stayed long, it is urgent to mention a hint about him as he was famous for the great discoveries under his name in the king’s valley which was discovered in 1992 by “Heward Carter”. As the greatest discovery for the amazing gold wealth.

The king died since 3270 year while he was less then twenty years in a circumstances foretelling that the sun of the eight family is about to fade in its golden distinguished era.

Hatshebsuit “Princes of the Marine Der”: (1510: 1490 BC).

She is regarded as one of the best amusing pages of the Egyptian history, it is full of strangeness, thrillingness, and particularity. She was the first lady to rule Egypt, she was the wife of king “Touhotmos second”, who was known for his weak personality, thus allowing his wife to interfere in the ruling matters, when he died the realm was inherited by his son “Tohoutmos third”, who was young, thus she took throne, in one of the best fertile periods in the Egyptian history, where trade was flowing and war was far, peace prevailing. She was concerned to make good relations with the surrounding countries south and northwards; thus trade exchange for goods was so high.

On the walls of “the marine temple”, she recorded a detailed report for the most huge famous marine trade as one of her achievements. Where the Egyptian fleets sailed to “Bonnet”, as the largest trading fleet, beside the artists and painters who described the countries of Bonet? Its nature, geography, and many other things, this report included a detailed list for the imported goods that the Egyptian ship returned carrying, like, ivory, woods, leathers, gold bars, silver, scents, spices, medical herbs, huge number of living animals, one of the greatest monuments left as a symbol to the modern age is the temple of “El Deir El Bahry”, at Thebs Luxor, it was built by an unprecedented way in the old world, it was built inside the mountain.

This glorious work was executed by engineer “Senonmout” who became the prime consultant for the queen in all matters. , It was said that there was a love affair between both of them, no wonder he really innovated in memorizing her name by this great temple. It was said that the queen was buried in this temple, but no one up till now knows where her tomb is.

History record that “Tohoutmos third” took the Rhine when he became older and made her took side, and ordered to ruin all her statues as a ruler to Egypt, while wearing the crown, albeit this some monuments and statues for her were remained.

Tohoutmos the Third: Greatest History Leaders:(1490:1468BC)

He is regarded as one of the most famous military leaders in history, he founded the Egyptian military Empire, he tended to extensions, after taking the Rhine, and he started a series of military extensions. Reached 16 campaigns, for 20 years, till Egypt became a huge empire. South wards till Nouba, east ward till Ashour, North ward to Syria and Lebanon and the countries of the two rivers, thus the taxes and penalties were obliged and imposed on these countries and providing wealth and good for the country. 

It was said also that he took the sons and princes of these countries to teach them in the Egyptian schools to prepare them politically to be ready for ruling when they are to rule while indebted to Egypt for its civilization. He built many obelisks all over Egypt, as well as the obelisk on the river Times in London which calls “Cleopatra obelisk” and the other one in New York which carries the same name.

He was known also for his fairness, Knoblity trying to achieve luxury to the nation, he was talented too in the military side, with innovative ideas.

He was too advanced for his era, he invented ship that can be dismantled and rebuilt in very short time to carry it through deserts to reach Iraq.

There are a lot to say about his military genius, his plans and his early thoughts which was inspired from another leaders after many years, the historians said that Tohoutmous Third was the first leader in the history who was putting the plans which divide the army into two parts: a heart and two wings.

Rams II : the master of builders: (1290: 1224 BC)

He is one of the most famous Pharaohs, he called himself Rams the Greatest, the historians named him “the master of builders”, as an appreciation to his statues, huge foundations in the entire ancient Egyptian cities and regions.

The era of Rams second lasted for 67 years, he got (111) boy and (67) girls, as soon as he got the realm he leaded military campaigns against Egypt’s enemies, he engraved the details of war on the walls of temples. The story of “Kadish” that depicted the victory of Rams II over “Heythins” was considered the first lyric in the history and the oldest famous war in history.

After being satisfied from wars, he started a new era of diplomacy, through which he achieved a lot. The temples of “Abou semple” And “Romesium” are a witness over his greatness, albeit what said about him that he took over the ancient temples and referred it to him. His era was distinguished for the liberation of trade, and arts, which reached amazement and glory, his obelisk in Paris talk about him, he wrote in it

“. Rams – Destroyer of all foreign nations

Master over anyone wearing a crown

The warier that won million of enemies

He made the whole world under his power

Certifying his power which can not be beaten”

The Egypt Art Method:

For the Egyptian art a certain print and method, can not be mislead in any place of time. It was so different then any other art, his features are featured by continuity over three thousand years, it was a unique philosophy as if created by one single artiest… All artistic works were not signed, as the artist in these times consider his works as a message to history and as service to the Pharaoh god. Still there were very rare cases where the artists were allowed to express their vision. As we see in one of the rarely individual examples which come back to Raamsas era “1305-1080 before Christ” is a papyrus which was keeping in Turin Museum and in the British museum in London, it called “sexual papyrus”, the artist tells us about one of a sex and prostitution houses, he describes what he saw and his experience there.

The Egyptian artists depended in his painting on the flat shapes, depending on the force of the outer line deciding the shapes and bodies, he was away from incarnating and shading, in addition to the use of the third dimension to give depth in the portrait, the Egyptian art in its painting was really concerned by the event in itself not the place or the time. As they believe that they are ever lasting, life for them was just a transitional phase as a way to an ever-lasting one. The Egyptian art was distinguished for its simplicity and compound effects in the mean while.

His use to the strong outer line returns to the Egyptian natural solar lights which it covers all the shapes and bodies, it’s too hard to distinguish the background clearly unless you use this method to express the incidence with its essential elements, the searcher artist for immortality and eternity neglected the time and the place of the painting according to his cult. The Egyptian artist drew the person, a man or a woman, an upright, the shape of the body had extraordinary positions, the face was always painted in a (profile) position, and the eye had to be complete to see with it. This is expressing by the pictures of a “blend” Harper, he did not draw his eye at all, and he left it blank as if he wanted to make sure that there is no eye if we can not see with it. He seems like a child’s drawing who expresses with it the conceptual reality not visual reality or fact, as he knows it not as he sees.

The rest of the drawing of the human’s body confirms his neglected to the visual facts, he drew the shoulders from the forward position, and he showed the two legs in the same level although one is a step forward than the other.

A huge imagination and a big capability of composition and simplicity have characterized old Egyptian artist, this appears in his drawing of goddess. According to his stories and cult, he put animals head on human bodies, he painted Ibn Awa’s head with a man’s body (goddess Sekhmet) and a cat’s head on a woman’s body, he painted sphinx with a man’s head and a lion’s body, another example is the goddess “Not” of the sky, he drew it as a woman in a strange position, her legs and arms on the ground. The old Egyptian artist was good in decoration and mixing between the shapes in a complete work, which needs person with very high taste and a creative person. 

Any way, these were the known characteristics for the ancient Egyptian art, which show some of the philosophy of this art that seemed primitive and talented in the mean while, but it is a religious art in the first degree. Having a lot of innovation, it is not true what was said that magicians built the art of the Pharaohs. The first portrait for the artist while performing his art was there in “Madrouk” tomb at Sakara, being depicted while engraving the seasons signs according tot he ancient Egyptian classification.

JUL

24

Sun of History

Sun of History

شمس.التاريخ

Humanity went for its development way for ages and ages. Even for thousand of years, till it reached the resent form, from advancement, luxury and civilization, but we can not deny the prints of the leading civilization, which laid the first steps and features of this civilization, it pushed humanity to the road of development and nourishment.

The Egyptian civilization is regarded as the mother civilization in the history of humanity; the Pharaohs are the ones who opened the doors of history, so that the sun of knowledge, art, innovation may shine for the coming generations and civilizations. Wonder upon the glorious face of Egypt and its marvelous unique civilization.

After the ancient Egyptian civilization lived for thousands years, and reached the top of its development and nourishment, the sun of this civilization vanished from Egypt due to the series of foreign invasions upon Egypt, while an other civilizations shined in other places to continue the course of humanity

Side by side with the fading of the Egyptian civilization, the Hieroglyphic language disappeared, by time, and the following generations failed to explain what the Egyptian monument meant. They depended in their knowledge on the words of the historians who visited Egypt and wrote on it lead by (Herodot), who was right in some of what he wrote and was mistaken on many other things.

The Egyptian history which the world know is deliberately deformed, uncompleted in many times, they read it written in a foreign pen which did not lived in this civilization. They have not listened to the Egyptian civilization while it was talking about it self.

The other reason behind this darkness is due to the vicious hands that deformed this history. Whether individuals or rulers or invaders, many times the thieves tread to stele the wealth of the Pharaohs tombs in the ancient history and modern ones.

When the tomb of “Tout Ankhamoun” was discovered with all its marvelous wealth, the whole world talked about it for its hugeness and beauty, the scientists and researchers assured, that if the wealth was belong to this little king , what about the wealth in the tombs of the huge strong Pharaohs, like Ramsis the Second, Tohoutmos and Akhnaton. And others. A lot of tombs where discovered to be actually stolen and destroyed.

This is beside, what the Pharaohs kings of Egypt destroyed by their hands for the previous monuments to their age- for political reasons- which was the badly habit to them.

History can remember many incidents indicating this fact, when Tohoutmos the Third, took the thorn of Egypt after the realm of Queen Hatshebsuit, he ordered to ruin her imprints, and abolish her name, specially her statue in which she was wearing men’s wear with bear and Pharaohs Crown.

In another incident, the Pharaohs was ordered to destroy the imprints of King “Akhnaton” after his death. (Akhnaton) was the one who called for a religious revolution, and believed in one God “Atone” with the sun symbol, he also held a new capital for Egypt, which made the public and religious people rebel against him, and destroyed his city “Akhtatoun”, till its remnants discovered in Tel El Amrna.

The great king  “Rams Second” was known as “the master of builders”, he founded many huge statues, religious castles, which was known to be the most huge in the Egyptian Art. He was fond of steeling the monuments of the previous kings to him and then erasing their names, and putting his name instead, all this beside what the invaders have done from demolishing and ruining, whether intently or to use the stones of these monuments to build new buildings to be

The French troops to Egypt was behind the resolving of the darkness of the Egyptian history, education mended what days ruined, when one of the troop’s solder found a Pharaonic stone written in three languages, one of them was Hieroglyphic, where as Champion- who was fond by the Egyptian history- succeeded in reading the letters of the hieroglyphic, there we got a readable language which opened the page of the Egyptian history again.

There all the symbols in Hieroglyphic language on the walls of the tombs, castles and statues.  the ancient Egyptian civilization was nourished again, the statues and panels, where not just primitive drawings anymore, but deep innovative thought, the whole world read the ancient Egyptian literature, and was so amazed for its quality, and they know more about the arts, life and thought of this civilization.

As time passes, and many monumental discoveries, more details were acknowledged, and laid under study and serious surveying specialized in studying this civilization and its monuments – in most of the world’s countries- known as (Egyptology).

The Egyptian wisdom was obvious. They were the greatest architectures and builders; their glorious monument is a witness to this fact as the pyramid that is considered one of the world’s seven wonders .they called for eternity and believed that god is one,  the  first who searched for mines in history, they show amazing skills in jewelry and ornaments with their simple tools, they knew the weaving and cloth manufacturing and even more they exported it, Europe stayed till the last century using very similar methods to which the ancient Egyptians used to apply.

They build marine fleets that was not known to the world before, they were clever in battles arts and setting military plans, they were of the best sculptures, they tamed the most strong stones and made from it some rare master pieces, with no similar in history, they knew  mathematics, horoscopes, science and body perseverance – they were clever also in chemistry too, they composed number of equations and metals. They were first who invented the musical instruments, besides dancing art and literature, first who used symbols, pun in their writings.

Frankly, it is very difficult to know all what they initiated in the history , all what is written in history books and what scientists reached is just a slight features for this mother civilization, it is impossible to mention the civilization of three thousand years in some papers, every piece needs books and books to describe it.

As every thing is mortal, humans, time and civilization, the only lasting element as a witness is the arts and innovations of this era, this will be our lead to this simple knowledge as the ancient Egyptian wise man said

” Generations went to where we do not know, no one returns to us to tell about what happened their, their castles and monuments were demolished, nothing left except the sayings of wise men and what books recorded”

This is beside, the artist’s innovation, finally, we should know that the Egyptian ancient art was not just a primitive naive art, as some tried to depict, it did not reached perfection. As some thinker mentioned ” There is no art that reached perfection, but it will always yarn for it” This is applied to all arts in all ages.

The History of Ancient Egypt:

The river Nile is the life of Egypt, and fertility and growing, as the first man settled on its banks, their life occurred and new era of history, which is different from what it was before, thus he know settlements, exchanging life of wondering, for food and shelter by the stable agricultural life, thus this was the first step towards civilization, and there the mind of the Egyptians started to develop as a start to the new human settlement.

Egypt succeeded to enforce its civilization in an early age; this was reflected in its unique art that was distinguished in expression. It became with particular features that made the one realize the difference from the very first minute between the other civilizations which was influenced by the Egyptian one, but after  three thousand years which was called the age before monuments till the era of king Narmer (Mina) who ruled Egypt and unified its northern and southern poles in one strong state, which was the announcer of an ancient Egyptian history and Pharaohs civilization which lasted for other three thousand years divided into three main phases started from establishing the first Pharaonic family.. The era of the old state, then the era of the middle state then the modern state the summit of the Egyptian civilization’s development.

Surveyors and scientists classified the Egyptian history to transitional eras and decades according to the time serial and classification BC

1- Early era The first & second families  3000:2705

2- Old State From the third to the sixth family   2705:2155

3- The first transitional era From the seventh to the tenth family  2155:2134

4- The medium state eleventh and twelfth families 2134:1781

5- Second transition era from 13th to 17th family  1550:1781

6- Modern state From the 18th   to 20th  family          1070 : 1550

7- Following eras – The 21st to 30 Th family (The Libyan & Ethiopian kings & El Sawy& The Fares rule & the last national family )  332 : 1070 

– Romanian Baltic era (From the year 332 till the Arabs opened Egypt in 640)

The early era was the beginning of settlement, and various life types over the banks of the Nile, the canals were dug to irrigate lands, seeding of plants for better life, the availability of a place to include a nation with a ruler and leader of a group, These groups were united over the Egyptian land in two states… The northern and southern states, till Mina came and unified both of them to become one Egyptian state under his rule , since this era, occurred a single political and social and administrative system, the pharaoh was known with the ruler or the God, in addition the Egyptians believed in the immortality of sole and its after life after taking its punishment over the hands of gods after death and passing the darkness gates.

As the Pharaohs was the ruler of both poles , there occurred rituals for these festivals and it became inherited in the history of Egypt, The Pharaoh is this festival should wear the white crown (the crown of the south) then to wear the red one (of the north), the king is to end the festival by wondering around a fence as a symbol to his power to cease enemies to enter Egypt.

The word ” Pharo ” means “the huge house” meaning the rule house of king’s castle then it became the ruler’s name.

The ancient state era started by king “Zoser,” the beginning of the third family, which was an announcement to a new era to an Egyptian civilization. A distinguished start advent to building and art, this returns to “Amihoteb” minister who was talented in engineering, literature, medicine who changed the traditional building methods, he exchanged craved stones instead of wood and mud, he executed the first stone pyramid in history, it was the start of the construction revolution which history recorded to this civilization, This minister has paid tribute to the artist in his life and after his death, there were bronze statues engraved for him while sitting bold headed, over his body a transparent cloth, over his knee a papyrus with  the son of “Petah”.

In this era, the Pharaohs took the description of God, for the first time, he was given the title ” the kind hearted God – NetherNefer”, in the realm of King “Senefro”, the first king of the fourth family. The opening campaigns for Noba Libia, a lot of buildings were established, Dahshour pyramid, his predecessors took the example and built their miracle pyramids in Giza, Khofo, Kefren and Mankera for what they got of power and civilization.

As the fifth family came, a lot of religions came with new Gods; the Pharaohs were concerned with building royal tombs, temples. In the mean while the central rule for the capital Menf became weaker, thus the power of the governors became stronger, which lead to their independence. In the first transition era for the Egyptian civilization, the weakness became more obvious in the fifth family, till the Rhine came “Tee” the founder of the sixth family, after the king “Srkeraa” who stayed a short time came “Beouby first”, who was a strong ruler returned stability and his rule lasted for half a century, his monuments are too many in San El Hagger which indicated to his strong tendency towards building, then came “Beouby second” who ruled Egypt for the longest time history know about, extended for 94 years, when he became old, the country was overwhelmed by revolution, followed by steeling , a lot of ethics deteriorated as an impact to mess that filled the states, beside the starvation due to fluids, which was the last broken straw.

The seventh and eighth families do not have any impacts in the Egyptian history, till “Heracliopolic” took the thorn on Ahnisia as the founder of the ninth and tenth families, then war took place between the kings of Thebs in the south and independent Ahnisia’s kings, the northern king failed several times, till he became victorious at the end leaded by “Mentouhotby second” who returned the unity of Egypt once more starting the new era in the history of Egypt which is “the medium state”.

The Pharaoh “Mentehoutby second” great efforts for reform and reconstruction of a strong state as it was before, he was concerned by insuring the boarders, linking Noba and Oases to his realm, then “Sanikh Karaa” or “Metohotbi third”, then “Neb Tawy raa”, or “Mentouhotbi fourth” to continue the comprehensive economic and artistic upraise, This era was considered a real introduction tot he Rhine of the 12th family, which was regarded one of the greatest family who ruled Egypt. 

King “Amenmahat” the founder of the 12th family whom saw that “Thebs” become no longer suitable as a capital to Egypt with its two poles, thus, they took a new capital towards the north between Fayoum and Menf, this king succeeded in planting security in the hearts of the civilians, he was so fair, he planned the regions and distributed the irrigation water in between them fairly, he assigned the regions rulers to collect taxes, assigning the civilians, taking care of agriculture and irrigation. He exempted the regions with draught catastrophes from paying taxes.

“Amenmahat first” talking to his son Senosret first describing his deeds:

      “I was seeding the yeast that god of love loves

       The Nile gave me in every wide valley

  I have never left anyone to complain of hunger or thirst

       All people lived under comprehensive peace

          Because what I have done to them “

It was known about the kings of the 12th family that they have good relations with other countries, they secured the Egyptian boarders with fortress in the south and with Asia and Libya.

Before the end of this era, Egypt witness one of the weakest realms, were it was ruled by weak kings, and for the first time in its history it was invaded by foreign invaders “Sextons ” meaning “the foreign ruler”.

The Sextons ruled the delta and Upper Egypt till “Kousia” (1570:1675 before Christ) where as the kings of Thebs continued to rule North Egypt, also Nuba took its independence from the realm of Egypt under Koush kings. In the era of King “Camous”, he battled with the invaders and became victorious and through them out of Egypt, he started his campaign successfully, and his brother “Ahmous” continued, who lead the army to throw the Sextons out of Egypt, regaining menf, then Afaris, following them till the Palestinian lands, returning back victoriously founding a new era for the 18th family to lead which was one of the old history marks, the Rhine shifted to “Tohotmos first”, who continued the movement and extended the boarders to Donkla in Sudan south ward and Forat North word. He was followed by “Tohoutmos second” who got married to “Hatshibsuit”, his half sister, who ruled Egypt after his death, for the first time Egypt to be rules by a woman, she restricted the thorn to “Tohoutmos third”, the most famous monuments for her was the Marine temple in Luxor – she proved to be one of the best rulers for Egypt, she set the rules for security, stability to the countries, and trade flourished more and more. She used to say

 “My utmost concern is to revive what is ruined and continue what Was not built “

She ruled Egypt for 22 years, till her son became old – “Tohoutmos third” – one of the most famous Pharaohs, he was very advanced military wise, and was well known for his tendency for extension, he extended Egypt’s power over Sudan, Palestine, Syria the Mediterranean islands, he prepared a trade, artistic and urban glory era for Egypt, as a proof the festival whole in Karnek temple.

This glory increases in the era of “Amenhouteb second” and “Amenhouteb third”, it was the best glory eras in the history of Egypt , with stability and luxury, there occurred the huge castles , , parks, artificial lacks, statues with gold engravings.

When “Amenhouteb fourth” took the Rhine, he named himself “Akhnatoun”, who called for religious revolution claiming to pray to one god, whose symbolized by the sun “Atone”, he left all other religions , calling for his new religion with his wife “Nefertity”, who participated with him in rule and call, this call was not successful after “Tout Ankhamoun” took the thorn and returned  praying “Amoun” and the capital to “Thebs”, he died on this 20th, his wealth was famous by the tomb he left as one of the greatest tombs in the history of Egypt.

The eras of wealth continued till the 19th family “Sity first” and “Rams Second”, where as it deteriorated due to political and religious conflict, where religious people won and  Amoun saints ruled Egypt for the first time, “Horihour” was thronged a king on the larger bank of Egypt in (1090 before Christ), it became a religious rule, then “Shoushnak”, with Libyan origin the rule of Egypt in (950 before Christ), then came the 21st and 22nd families till (730 before Christ), till the Sawion kings ruled for 15 years, ended with Ethiopians rule, then came the Ashourians to Nouba and settled there.

When the king “Besmatek” appeared, he returned the stability to Egypt, its architectural, artistic and literature renaissance in the twenty-sixth family, it was a temporary return to the Egyptian soul.

Then came “Cambize” to invade Egypt in (525 before Christ) then Alexander in (332 before Christ), who set the Macdounian rule in Egypt till Egypt became a Roman state in (30 before Christ) and the sun of Pharaohs faded with its leadership allover the world, then the Pharaohs monuments stayed as a witness to their greatness and history, their leadership in the humanity history.

Life In Ancient Egypt:

Thought three thousand years, the Egyptian lived to built the first humanity civilizations, in the eras of Pharaohs the Egyptians features were formed, beside his unique arts over the banks of the Nile, sun of the valley, kind clay, the Egyptian was known for kind heart, he lived to worship three things, God, rule, family, he obeys the sentences of god, fears after life , respects the rules of the ruler as the son of God. Agriculture taught him love of settlement, respect of family , the Egyptian farmer plants since the start of humanity, waiting for the flood which marks the beginning of the year in 19 June- in this period the water of the Nile covers all agricultural lands, he permits himself a rest time for four months , after the water returns back , he starts his hard work, from the sun shine to its set, to start the (Berit) season, or growth, thus he seeds and store water, building dams, organizing water for the next coming four months, when the third season and the last (Shemo) or the dry season starts – from mid March- mid July- the farmer starts to rip his fruits.

The Egyptian farmer knows that the land is not his own, but it is owned to the king, but he plants, irrigates , raise cattle, poultry, fishing to feed the nation, for whatever ears and rulers.  As for the Egyptian employee, was the one who learned and became eloquent to qualify him to be a governmental employee, which placed him in a better position social and occupational wise than the farmer.

The rulers encouraged this class specially under the reform program which the rulers of the 12th family adopted, they hired a big number of educated employees to run the state’s affairs, there formed a new class of bourgeoisie   which played a prominent role in the administrative all prime ministers and ministers depend on employees to scatter their power over the country, even more, the employee became the linking point between the ruler and the ruled. There the employee became an example, and every father hoped to have an employee or an educated son, the middle class also is formed of the solders, who are serving the army of the Pharaoh to stop the troops coming from Asia or from the south or to merge Nouba to Egypt .. another category is the clever specialized manufacturers and constructors  who made the great Egyptian civilization survived for ages. The artist were working in temples of schools to perform what is required from them. Some of which became so famous and was asked for by name, like the talented architecture “Amenhouteb”, who built the step pyramid of Zoser, and the artist engineer “Senenmout”, who built the temple of Marine Deir, the tombs were not named after any artiest due tot he sacredness of the work in service for God, these are the persons forming the middle class. As for the third part, they were the labors participating in performing the artistic architectural works, they are not specialized, but labor class who do not get appreciation from society.

They were educating their youngsters that

” whoever do his best , will become a writer, or a reverend employee , with respect in society, whoever fails, will be from the labor class whom are inferiors. “

Egypt‘s Rulers:

Since the start of the state three thousand years before Crest, and the unified kingdom was formed under king Narmer (Mina) and there came emperors  some set bases and rules for the state, as an example “Sezostrees third” in (1881 before Christ) set a central strong administrative  and political systems to manage ruling the state which extended from north at the Mediterranean sea till the south at Nouba.

The top of the rule is the Pharaoh who is the god representative on earth, the link between the real world and the unknown world, or between earth and sky, he has a prime minister who have a decided role in a document called  “the responsibility of the minister”

 which the Pharaoh state and declare in the minister’s hiring ceremony, this declaration urges the appliance of justice.. the Pharaoh says to his minister:

 “Take the role of a minister, be keen on all what is related to this task , it include aid to all state… frankly speaking, the job of a minister is so bitter not a sweet job.. It do not utter unfair sentences, Gods do not like injustice. Receive people you know and you do not know in the same manner, who is close to you and who is not”.

The role of the minister is to achieve the ethical system, social amalgamation in the country, after meeting the Pharaoh every day, he is to follow all works in the state.. judiciary, agriculture, irrigation, army, police, public system, trade, taxes, public money , hiring employees in various state positions in the 42 regions forming Egypt.

In a certificate written by “Rakhmiraa” – the followed example- in the  Rhine of “Touhotmos third” came the following:

“I have judge fairly between the simple humble man and the one with power , I helped the weak to encounter the strong, I have handled the anger of the vicious man, made the miser surrender, helped the widow , helped the inheritor to get his inheritance, I have never closed my ear against the complains of those who needs something, I have never accepted any bride”.

The Famous Pharaohs:

The history of Egypt was full of the great Pharaohs, their monuments and names lasted forever, and this was achieved by history memorizing them and their great civilizations. There are various names that left a strong impact in the ancient and contemporary history.

Ahmous : Battled the Sextons and founded the ancient strong Egyptian Empire.

Hatshebsuit   : First lady ruling Egypt, in an UN-precedent era in the history of Egypt.

Touhotmos III : Best military leader in the world

Akhnaton: The philosopher Pharaohs who call for god’s unity And worshipping one God, his era was an artistic and though advent in the history of ancient Egyptian civilization.

Tout Ankhamoun: The famous allover the world with his wealth and monuments

Rams II : Best Pharaoh, named best constructor for his glorious buildings and monuments.

Ahmous: Battled the Sextons:

The Sextons invaded Egypt wanting its wealth, because of the weakness of its rulers by that time, they could not control all regions. some regions stayed under the realm of the Egyptians, they agreed to pay bribes for the Sextons, the Nubian rulers took advantage of the situation and became independent.

By the founding of the 17th family in the Egyptian history , which was ruling Thebs, it was the spirit for nationalism, this family gave Egypt strong  leaders believed in the urgency of liberating the country, and throwing out the invaders in a series of courageous wars, they flamed the ambitious feeling in the hearts of the Egyptians, they declared rebellion against Sextons, and who ally with them, there occurred king “Sekenn Raa” named courageous who lead an army of the civilians, farmers, labors, craftsmen in a sacred liberation war, when this king was dead as a martyr, his son “Camose” took over , and was succeeded to encircle the Sextons in their capital “Afaris”, by that time the number of the Egyptian army was 480 thousand warier , it seems that the spirits of the warriors and the civilians were so high under the realm of “Ahmous”. The arm armaments were made of Bronze, there were full troops of knights, military bicycles, pulled by horses.

“Ahmous” was successful in getting the Sextons fully out of Egypt, even out of Palestine and Syria, after getting them out, he went to Nouba to merge it again to Egypt.

Thus, “Ahmous” unified Egypt’s land once more under a centralized rule “Thebs” he deserves to be the founder of another new family which is the 18th family, which is regarded as one of the most historical eras in the history of Egyptand the founder of “the modern state”.

Akhnaton’sun and Tel El Amrna Arts:

He is the philosopher, thinker, looking for reality- as he named himself- the first calling to pray one God, he denied worshipping many Gods.

He is Amenhouteb fourth, naming himself “Akhnaton”, he is the son of two great Pharaohs in the Egyptian history in “Thebs”. His father is “Amenhouted third” and his mother is the queen “Tee”.

Albeit his luxurious life, he contemplated a lot  and reached a very advanced thinking which pushed him to believe that God is one. “Aton”” with the sun symbol, with its rays as hands holding the keys of life “ankh”, he discarded the idea of incarnating God in a human shape. He linked the symbol of justice, truth, reality with God “maat”, no child no wife.

We he took the Rhine, he build temples for praying the single God “Atone”, and forbids praying more than one God. He set “Atone prayers” as a charter to his religion, after five years he realized that it is impossible to convince the religious saints of Amoun, as a result of their refusal to the new religion, he founded a new capital named “Akhtatoun” near Tel El Amerna, south of present Minya Governorate, passed an order to stop worshipping Amoun, he called for his religion for 12 years albeit the strong attack against him, till the movement became weak in his last days, and gradually people returned to pray Amoun once more. It was not know for sure whether he died  in a normal way or he was killed, he just disappeared.

This period of the Pharaonic history, which did not exceed the quarter of a century, which scientists call “Tel El Amrna”, was more glorious when the city “Aoukhtaton” built by Akhnaton being discovered, as the rulers followed him consider him as an out law from their habits and destroyed his city totally.

The remnants of this city assure the difference of this art in the era of Akhnaton than the other eras. The king wants his art to cop with his vision. “Bek” the great sculpture at that time said: “the king was his master in arts”.

Albeit, this was too exaggerated, but it indicated that he got a very particular mind and though, which is too different then others in his age. He searched for truth and called himself “the searcher for truth”, this was so clear in his art, not depicting stagnant objects, and he liberated the Egyptian artists from the ties of routine, and left them to express what they feel in artistic works.

In the previous ages, the artists were obliged to depict the king and queen in a certain way according to set rules, but in tal EL Amena, they were free to express what they want, like showing the Pharaoh in his daily life with his family, in his house while playing with his wife and little girls. In other scenes, the queen “Nefertiti” was seen kissing the king in many occasions. He was the first Pharaoh accepting to let artists depict him with his deformities, without any decoration, as fat and ugly, which made some people thought he was sick.

But his faith in his philosophy made him believe in his vision.

out Ankhamoun   “The Golden King”:    (1347: 1339 BC)

Albeit Tout Ankhamoun took the Rhine while very young and had not stayed long, it is urgent to mention a hint about him as he was famous for the great discoveries under his name in the king’s valley which was discovered in 1992 by “Heward Carter”. As the greatest discovery for the amazing gold wealth.

The king died since 3270 year while he was less then twenty years in a circumstances foretelling that the sun of the eight family is about to fade in its golden distinguished era.

Hatshebsuit “Princes of the Marine Der”: (1510: 1490 BC).

She is regarded as one of the best amusing pages of the Egyptian history, it is full of strangeness, thrillingness, and particularity. She was the first lady to rule Egypt, she was the wife of king “Touhotmos second”, who was known for his weak personality, thus allowing his wife to interfere in the ruling matters, when he died the realm was inherited by his son “Tohoutmos third”, who was young, thus she took throne, in one of the best fertile periods in the Egyptian history, where trade was flowing and war was far, peace prevailing. She was concerned to make good relations with the surrounding countries south and northwards; thus trade exchange for goods was so high.

On the walls of “the marine temple”, she recorded a detailed report for the most huge famous marine trade as one of her achievements. Where the Egyptian fleets sailed to “Bonnet”, as the largest trading fleet, beside the artists and painters who described the countries of Bonet? Its nature, geography, and many other things, this report included a detailed list for the imported goods that the Egyptian ship returned carrying, like, ivory, woods, leathers, gold bars, silver, scents, spices, medical herbs, huge number of living animals, one of the greatest monuments left as a symbol to the modern age is the temple of “El Deir El Bahry”, at Thebs Luxor, it was built by an unprecedented way in the old world, it was built inside the mountain.

This glorious work was executed by engineer “Senonmout” who became the prime consultant for the queen in all matters. , It was said that there was a love affair between both of them, no wonder he really innovated in memorizing her name by this great temple. It was said that the queen was buried in this temple, but no one up till now knows where her tomb is.

History record that “Tohoutmos third” took the Rhine when he became older and made her took side, and ordered to ruin all her statues as a ruler to Egypt, while wearing the crown, albeit this some monuments and statues for her were remained.

Tohoutmos the Third: Greatest History Leaders:(1490:1468BC)

He is regarded as one of the most famous military leaders in history, he founded the Egyptian military Empire, he tended to extensions, after taking the Rhine, and he started a series of military extensions. Reached 16 campaigns, for 20 years, till Egypt became a huge empire. South wards till Nouba, east ward till Ashour, North ward to Syria and Lebanon and the countries of the two rivers, thus the taxes and penalties were obliged and imposed on these countries and providing wealth and good for the country. 

It was said also that he took the sons and princes of these countries to teach them in the Egyptian schools to prepare them politically to be ready for ruling when they are to rule while indebted to Egypt for its civilization. He built many obelisks all over Egypt, as well as the obelisk on the river Times in London which calls “Cleopatra obelisk” and the other one in New York which carries the same name.

He was known also for his fairness, Knoblity trying to achieve luxury to the nation, he was talented too in the military side, with innovative ideas.

He was too advanced for his era, he invented ship that can be dismantled and rebuilt in very short time to carry it through deserts to reach Iraq.

There are a lot to say about his military genius, his plans and his early thoughts which was inspired from another leaders after many years, the historians said that Tohoutmous Third was the first leader in the history who was putting the plans which divide the army into two parts: a heart and two wings.

Rams II : the master of builders: (1290: 1224 BC)

He is one of the most famous Pharaohs, he called himself Rams the Greatest, the historians named him “the master of builders”, as an appreciation to his statues, huge foundations in the entire ancient Egyptian cities and regions.

The era of Rams second lasted for 67 years, he got (111) boy and (67) girls, as soon as he got the realm he leaded military campaigns against Egypt’s enemies, he engraved the details of war on the walls of temples. The story of “Kadish” that depicted the victory of Rams II over “Heythins” was considered the first lyric in the history and the oldest famous war in history.

After being satisfied from wars, he started a new era of diplomacy, through which he achieved a lot. The temples of “Abou semple” And “Romesium” are a witness over his greatness, albeit what said about him that he took over the ancient temples and referred it to him. His era was distinguished for the liberation of trade, and arts, which reached amazement and glory, his obelisk in Paris talk about him, he wrote in it

“. Rams – Destroyer of all foreign nations

Master over anyone wearing a crown

The warier that won million of enemies

He made the whole world under his power

Certifying his power which can not be beaten”

The Egypt Art Method:

For the Egyptian art a certain print and method, can not be mislead in any place of time. It was so different then any other art, his features are featured by continuity over three thousand years, it was a unique philosophy as if created by one single artiest… All artistic works were not signed, as the artist in these times consider his works as a message to history and as service to the Pharaoh god. Still there were very rare cases where the artists were allowed to express their vision. As we see in one of the rarely individual examples which come back to Raamsas era “1305-1080 before Christ” is a papyrus which was keeping in Turin Museum and in the British museum in London, it called “sexual papyrus”, the artist tells us about one of a sex and prostitution houses, he describes what he saw and his experience there.

The Egyptian artists depended in his painting on the flat shapes, depending on the force of the outer line deciding the shapes and bodies, he was away from incarnating and shading, in addition to the use of the third dimension to give depth in the portrait, the Egyptian art in its painting was really concerned by the event in itself not the place or the time. As they believe that they are ever lasting, life for them was just a transitional phase as a way to an ever-lasting one. The Egyptian art was distinguished for its simplicity and compound effects in the mean while.

His use to the strong outer line returns to the Egyptian natural solar lights which it covers all the shapes and bodies, it’s too hard to distinguish the background clearly unless you use this method to express the incidence with its essential elements, the searcher artist for immortality and eternity neglected the time and the place of the painting according to his cult. The Egyptian artist drew the person, a man or a woman, an upright, the shape of the body had extraordinary positions, the face was always painted in a (profile) position, and the eye had to be complete to see with it. This is expressing by the pictures of a “blend” Harper, he did not draw his eye at all, and he left it blank as if he wanted to make sure that there is no eye if we can not see with it. He seems like a child’s drawing who expresses with it the conceptual reality not visual reality or fact, as he knows it not as he sees.

The rest of the drawing of the human’s body confirms his neglected to the visual facts, he drew the shoulders from the forward position, and he showed the two legs in the same level although one is a step forward than the other.

A huge imagination and a big capability of composition and simplicity have characterized old Egyptian artist, this appears in his drawing of goddess. According to his stories and cult, he put animals head on human bodies, he painted Ibn Awa’s head with a man’s body (goddess Sekhmet) and a cat’s head on a woman’s body, he painted sphinx with a man’s head and a lion’s body, another example is the goddess “Not” of the sky, he drew it as a woman in a strange position, her legs and arms on the ground. The old Egyptian artist was good in decoration and mixing between the shapes in a complete work, which needs person with very high taste and a creative person. 

Any way, these were the known characteristics for the ancient Egyptian art, which show some of the philosophy of this art that seemed primitive and talented in the mean while, but it is a religious art in the first degree. Having a lot of innovation, it is not true what was said that magicians built the art of the Pharaohs. The first portrait for the artist while performing his art was there in “Madrouk” tomb at Sakara, being depicted while engraving the seasons signs according tot he ancient Egyptian classification.

 Architecturing Arts:

The Pharaonic Architecture is the mother of ancient arts, as it compiled all other arts, and preserved it. The ancient architect was concerned by death and after life he gave credit to burial and body perseverance, he was the one who express this urgent desire through great tombs and temples. As for the usual houses, it was made of weak elements like wood and mud, to indicate that life is short and not ever lasting.

The knowledge of the ancient Egyptians by the science of mathematics is important in the Egyptian architecture, beside the development in their ideas in the arts of construction, structure and balance. They knew the dates of the sun enter and the light into the temple and they could choose the construction place on the science bases.

The simple tools that the ancient Egyptians used to build such great monuments indicated their real talent, and it showed that it cost them too many effort and time. The elder pyramid took them twenty years to build it, using two million and six thousand square meter of stone. The essential part of “Habo” temple took between 12 to 15 years, using 45 thousands square meters of stone.

As for the labor, there were two classes, one class of the specialists, who got social rank allowing them to build statues for themselves, the distinguished have the right to build a step for him indicating his cleverness, the other class, which was regarded as the lower class, who were assigned, or imprisoned, or who do not have an occupation…

There are some documents showing that such great huge architects were having time schedule, with working shifts, all under the supervision of an overall supervisor, who was really punctual.

It was obvious that the engineers and architectures were having a distinguished social rank, some of which got so many privileges.  Like:

– “Emhouteb”. He is the engineer and minister of king Zoser; he is the father of ancient Architecture, the first to use stones in his buildings.

– “Enini”          Who built the fourth and fifth fortress of king

 Tohoutmos, in Karnak temple, he was the governor of   Thebs.

– “Habo Sneb”             Who built the tomb of queen “Hatshibsiut”,

    and he was the master of Amoun’s priest.

– “Amenhouteb Ibn Habou”    Who built the funeral temple for

 “Amenhouteb third”, and engraved the mammon statues in Luxor.

– “Sennenmout” who built the Marine temple for queen ‏”Hatsebsuit” and her  prime consultant.

Tombs:

The tombs were regarded as the second home, preserving the body of humans and his after life, that is why the ancient Egyptians gave unusual concern to their tombs, specially the Pharaohs tombs, which included their cloths, gold and furniture.

The tombs before the monuments era was a small dig in an oval or circle form with depth not more than two meters. Then dust was to cover the dead, this is beside some panes, cloths and favorite things for him, then the coffins became covered by the branches of the tree then paint by the lute, they developed to construction walls to the hall from the brick. The Egyptians reached to the construction of the mastaba and under it there is a long vault lead to the room of coffin that put on it the dead. There are another rooms to sacrifices, to the statues and the dead needs, Sakkara is considered one of the important places because it is rich of mastabas, and the important mastabas belong to “Caber”, “Tye” and “Nefer Hotep”.

The Temples:

The temples differ from era to era according to believe and religion, but they all agree in the main elements.

Building temples started by digging work according to the kind of land to bear the load, if the soil is muddy, it needs more depth, almost three meters, like Karnek temple and Habo city, if the land is sandy, the deep was half a meter only.

The temples consists of secondary parts for Gods, slaughter places for people’s donations, then places for the residence of the saints, in many cases there were artificial scared lakes where papyrus & louts plant were cultivated.

The temple usually starts with two high towers linked together with a gate. It slopes to the east to allow sun to give light to the temple. The ceiling was carried over posts like palm or papyrus as an imitation to nature. In other samples, the summit had the goddess heads; the most famous is the hathorian post that ends with the head of “Hathor”, the god of art and beauty.

The Egyptians in their calculations, were successful in deciding the light channels from the temple’s ceiling, where as concentration of the sun is just over the king only, to give sense of royalty. In a dramatic way giving fear.

The fence of the temple ends with some steps, leading to the whole of the posts, that it slightly high then the level of the ground, in the upper part of the whole, there was lights outlets, it is a reception area to the saints and important people. Over the walls there was paintings depicting the religious rituals, the best example was in the Karnak temple.

And there are a lot of beautiful architectural samples which lead to know the familiarity with the nature and the harmony between all of them.we had felt when we saw the architectural monuments of Egypt that into the tissue of the elements nature as the mountains, the desert, the green and the Nile as a piece of music between the god made and the man made, the Egyptian artist inspired the form of things into the temples from the different plants and the tree around him because it was grown like it. In Marine Der temple we can see how they got together the lines of the temple construction with the biggest of the mountain, which built in the face, the temple in the middle of the mountain, what is around and what is in the front, it is a beautiful and complex work as we see the beauty of “Abu Sample” temple which is engraving in the middle of the mountain and it became a piece of it. The mountain added the Tories of the temple and it had given it a soul of holiness, this reflects the Egyptian artist sensibility with universe and nature.

The ancient Egyptians used a lot of stones in their buildings as lime stones, sand stone, granite, black basalt, red quartz, marble, glass stone.

The perfect lime and sandstones were used in the outer layers for buildings, while the usual lime stones where used in the interiors.

JUL

24

Sun of History

Sun of History

شمس.التاريخ

Humanity went for its development way for ages and ages. Even for thousand of years, till it reached the resent form, from advancement, luxury and civilization, but we can not deny the prints of the leading civilization, which laid the first steps and features of this civilization, it pushed humanity to the road of development and nourishment.

The Egyptian civilization is regarded as the mother civilization in the history of humanity; the Pharaohs are the ones who opened the doors of history, so that the sun of knowledge, art, innovation may shine for the coming generations and civilizations. Wonder upon the glorious face of Egypt and its marvelous unique civilization.

After the ancient Egyptian civilization lived for thousands years, and reached the top of its development and nourishment, the sun of this civilization vanished from Egypt due to the series of foreign invasions upon Egypt, while an other civilizations shined in other places to continue the course of humanity

Side by side with the fading of the Egyptian civilization, the Hieroglyphic language disappeared, by time, and the following generations failed to explain what the Egyptian monument meant. They depended in their knowledge on the words of the historians who visited Egypt and wrote on it lead by (Herodot), who was right in some of what he wrote and was mistaken on many other things.

The Egyptian history which the world know is deliberately deformed, uncompleted in many times, they read it written in a foreign pen which did not lived in this civilization. They have not listened to the Egyptian civilization while it was talking about it self.

The other reason behind this darkness is due to the vicious hands that deformed this history. Whether individuals or rulers or invaders, many times the thieves tread to stele the wealth of the Pharaohs tombs in the ancient history and modern ones.

When the tomb of “Tout Ankhamoun” was discovered with all its marvelous wealth, the whole world talked about it for its hugeness and beauty, the scientists and researchers assured, that if the wealth was belong to this little king , what about the wealth in the tombs of the huge strong Pharaohs, like Ramsis the Second, Tohoutmos and Akhnaton. And others. A lot of tombs where discovered to be actually stolen and destroyed.

This is beside, what the Pharaohs kings of Egypt destroyed by their hands for the previous monuments to their age- for political reasons- which was the badly habit to them.

History can remember many incidents indicating this fact, when Tohoutmos the Third, took the thorn of Egypt after the realm of Queen Hatshebsuit, he ordered to ruin her imprints, and abolish her name, specially her statue in which she was wearing men’s wear with bear and Pharaohs Crown.

In another incident, the Pharaohs was ordered to destroy the imprints of King “Akhnaton” after his death. (Akhnaton) was the one who called for a religious revolution, and believed in one God “Atone” with the sun symbol, he also held a new capital for Egypt, which made the public and religious people rebel against him, and destroyed his city “Akhtatoun”, till its remnants discovered in Tel El Amrna.

The great king  “Rams Second” was known as “the master of builders”, he founded many huge statues, religious castles, which was known to be the most huge in the Egyptian Art. He was fond of steeling the monuments of the previous kings to him and then erasing their names, and putting his name instead, all this beside what the invaders have done from demolishing and ruining, whether intently or to use the stones of these monuments to build new buildings to be

The French troops to Egypt was behind the resolving of the darkness of the Egyptian history, education mended what days ruined, when one of the troop’s solder found a Pharaonic stone written in three languages, one of them was Hieroglyphic, where as Champion- who was fond by the Egyptian history- succeeded in reading the letters of the hieroglyphic, there we got a readable language which opened the page of the Egyptian history again.

There all the symbols in Hieroglyphic language on the walls of the tombs, castles and statues.  the ancient Egyptian civilization was nourished again, the statues and panels, where not just primitive drawings anymore, but deep innovative thought, the whole world read the ancient Egyptian literature, and was so amazed for its quality, and they know more about the arts, life and thought of this civilization.

As time passes, and many monumental discoveries, more details were acknowledged, and laid under study and serious surveying specialized in studying this civilization and its monuments – in most of the world’s countries- known as (Egyptology).

The Egyptian wisdom was obvious. They were the greatest architectures and builders; their glorious monument is a witness to this fact as the pyramid that is considered one of the world’s seven wonders .they called for eternity and believed that god is one,  the  first who searched for mines in history, they show amazing skills in jewelry and ornaments with their simple tools, they knew the weaving and cloth manufacturing and even more they exported it, Europe stayed till the last century using very similar methods to which the ancient Egyptians used to apply.

They build marine fleets that was not known to the world before, they were clever in battles arts and setting military plans, they were of the best sculptures, they tamed the most strong stones and made from it some rare master pieces, with no similar in history, they knew  mathematics, horoscopes, science and body perseverance – they were clever also in chemistry too, they composed number of equations and metals. They were first who invented the musical instruments, besides dancing art and literature, first who used symbols, pun in their writings.

Frankly, it is very difficult to know all what they initiated in the history , all what is written in history books and what scientists reached is just a slight features for this mother civilization, it is impossible to mention the civilization of three thousand years in some papers, every piece needs books and books to describe it.

As every thing is mortal, humans, time and civilization, the only lasting element as a witness is the arts and innovations of this era, this will be our lead to this simple knowledge as the ancient Egyptian wise man said

” Generations went to where we do not know, no one returns to us to tell about what happened their, their castles and monuments were demolished, nothing left except the sayings of wise men and what books recorded”

This is beside, the artist’s innovation, finally, we should know that the Egyptian ancient art was not just a primitive naive art, as some tried to depict, it did not reached perfection. As some thinker mentioned ” There is no art that reached perfection, but it will always yarn for it” This is applied to all arts in all ages.

The History of Ancient Egypt:

The river Nile is the life of Egypt, and fertility and growing, as the first man settled on its banks, their life occurred and new era of history, which is different from what it was before, thus he know settlements, exchanging life of wondering, for food and shelter by the stable agricultural life, thus this was the first step towards civilization, and there the mind of the Egyptians started to develop as a start to the new human settlement.

Egypt succeeded to enforce its civilization in an early age; this was reflected in its unique art that was distinguished in expression. It became with particular features that made the one realize the difference from the very first minute between the other civilizations which was influenced by the Egyptian one, but after  three thousand years which was called the age before monuments till the era of king Narmer (Mina) who ruled Egypt and unified its northern and southern poles in one strong state, which was the announcer of an ancient Egyptian history and Pharaohs civilization which lasted for other three thousand years divided into three main phases started from establishing the first Pharaonic family.. The era of the old state, then the era of the middle state then the modern state the summit of the Egyptian civilization’s development.

Surveyors and scientists classified the Egyptian history to transitional eras and decades according to the time serial and classification BC

1- Early era The first & second families  3000:2705

2- Old State From the third to the sixth family   2705:2155

3- The first transitional era From the seventh to the tenth family  2155:2134

4- The medium state eleventh and twelfth families 2134:1781

5- Second transition era from 13th to 17th family  1550:1781

6- Modern state From the 18th   to 20th  family          1070 : 1550

7- Following eras – The 21st to 30 Th family (The Libyan & Ethiopian kings & El Sawy& The Fares rule & the last national family )  332 : 1070 

– Romanian Baltic era (From the year 332 till the Arabs opened Egypt in 640)

The early era was the beginning of settlement, and various life types over the banks of the Nile, the canals were dug to irrigate lands, seeding of plants for better life, the availability of a place to include a nation with a ruler and leader of a group, These groups were united over the Egyptian land in two states… The northern and southern states, till Mina came and unified both of them to become one Egyptian state under his rule , since this era, occurred a single political and social and administrative system, the pharaoh was known with the ruler or the God, in addition the Egyptians believed in the immortality of sole and its after life after taking its punishment over the hands of gods after death and passing the darkness gates.

As the Pharaohs was the ruler of both poles , there occurred rituals for these festivals and it became inherited in the history of Egypt, The Pharaoh is this festival should wear the white crown (the crown of the south) then to wear the red one (of the north), the king is to end the festival by wondering around a fence as a symbol to his power to cease enemies to enter Egypt.

The word ” Pharo ” means “the huge house” meaning the rule house of king’s castle then it became the ruler’s name.

The ancient state era started by king “Zoser,” the beginning of the third family, which was an announcement to a new era to an Egyptian civilization. A distinguished start advent to building and art, this returns to “Amihoteb” minister who was talented in engineering, literature, medicine who changed the traditional building methods, he exchanged craved stones instead of wood and mud, he executed the first stone pyramid in history, it was the start of the construction revolution which history recorded to this civilization, This minister has paid tribute to the artist in his life and after his death, there were bronze statues engraved for him while sitting bold headed, over his body a transparent cloth, over his knee a papyrus with  the son of “Petah”.

In this era, the Pharaohs took the description of God, for the first time, he was given the title ” the kind hearted God – NetherNefer”, in the realm of King “Senefro”, the first king of the fourth family. The opening campaigns for Noba Libia, a lot of buildings were established, Dahshour pyramid, his predecessors took the example and built their miracle pyramids in Giza, Khofo, Kefren and Mankera for what they got of power and civilization.

As the fifth family came, a lot of religions came with new Gods; the Pharaohs were concerned with building royal tombs, temples. In the mean while the central rule for the capital Menf became weaker, thus the power of the governors became stronger, which lead to their independence. In the first transition era for the Egyptian civilization, the weakness became more obvious in the fifth family, till the Rhine came “Tee” the founder of the sixth family, after the king “Srkeraa” who stayed a short time came “Beouby first”, who was a strong ruler returned stability and his rule lasted for half a century, his monuments are too many in San El Hagger which indicated to his strong tendency towards building, then came “Beouby second” who ruled Egypt for the longest time history know about, extended for 94 years, when he became old, the country was overwhelmed by revolution, followed by steeling , a lot of ethics deteriorated as an impact to mess that filled the states, beside the starvation due to fluids, which was the last broken straw.

The seventh and eighth families do not have any impacts in the Egyptian history, till “Heracliopolic” took the thorn on Ahnisia as the founder of the ninth and tenth families, then war took place between the kings of Thebs in the south and independent Ahnisia’s kings, the northern king failed several times, till he became victorious at the end leaded by “Mentouhotby second” who returned the unity of Egypt once more starting the new era in the history of Egypt which is “the medium state”.

The Pharaoh “Mentehoutby second” great efforts for reform and reconstruction of a strong state as it was before, he was concerned by insuring the boarders, linking Noba and Oases to his realm, then “Sanikh Karaa” or “Metohotbi third”, then “Neb Tawy raa”, or “Mentouhotbi fourth” to continue the comprehensive economic and artistic upraise, This era was considered a real introduction tot he Rhine of the 12th family, which was regarded one of the greatest family who ruled Egypt. 

King “Amenmahat” the founder of the 12th family whom saw that “Thebs” become no longer suitable as a capital to Egypt with its two poles, thus, they took a new capital towards the north between Fayoum and Menf, this king succeeded in planting security in the hearts of the civilians, he was so fair, he planned the regions and distributed the irrigation water in between them fairly, he assigned the regions rulers to collect taxes, assigning the civilians, taking care of agriculture and irrigation. He exempted the regions with draught catastrophes from paying taxes.

“Amenmahat first” talking to his son Senosret first describing his deeds:

      “I was seeding the yeast that god of love loves

       The Nile gave me in every wide valley

  I have never left anyone to complain of hunger or thirst

       All people lived under comprehensive peace

          Because what I have done to them “

It was known about the kings of the 12th family that they have good relations with other countries, they secured the Egyptian boarders with fortress in the south and with Asia and Libya.

Before the end of this era, Egypt witness one of the weakest realms, were it was ruled by weak kings, and for the first time in its history it was invaded by foreign invaders “Sextons ” meaning “the foreign ruler”.

The Sextons ruled the delta and Upper Egypt till “Kousia” (1570:1675 before Christ) where as the kings of Thebs continued to rule North Egypt, also Nuba took its independence from the realm of Egypt under Koush kings. In the era of King “Camous”, he battled with the invaders and became victorious and through them out of Egypt, he started his campaign successfully, and his brother “Ahmous” continued, who lead the army to throw the Sextons out of Egypt, regaining menf, then Afaris, following them till the Palestinian lands, returning back victoriously founding a new era for the 18th family to lead which was one of the old history marks, the Rhine shifted to “Tohotmos first”, who continued the movement and extended the boarders to Donkla in Sudan south ward and Forat North word. He was followed by “Tohoutmos second” who got married to “Hatshibsuit”, his half sister, who ruled Egypt after his death, for the first time Egypt to be rules by a woman, she restricted the thorn to “Tohoutmos third”, the most famous monuments for her was the Marine temple in Luxor – she proved to be one of the best rulers for Egypt, she set the rules for security, stability to the countries, and trade flourished more and more. She used to say

 “My utmost concern is to revive what is ruined and continue what Was not built “

She ruled Egypt for 22 years, till her son became old – “Tohoutmos third” – one of the most famous Pharaohs, he was very advanced military wise, and was well known for his tendency for extension, he extended Egypt’s power over Sudan, Palestine, Syria the Mediterranean islands, he prepared a trade, artistic and urban glory era for Egypt, as a proof the festival whole in Karnek temple.

This glory increases in the era of “Amenhouteb second” and “Amenhouteb third”, it was the best glory eras in the history of Egypt , with stability and luxury, there occurred the huge castles , , parks, artificial lacks, statues with gold engravings.

When “Amenhouteb fourth” took the Rhine, he named himself “Akhnatoun”, who called for religious revolution claiming to pray to one god, whose symbolized by the sun “Atone”, he left all other religions , calling for his new religion with his wife “Nefertity”, who participated with him in rule and call, this call was not successful after “Tout Ankhamoun” took the thorn and returned  praying “Amoun” and the capital to “Thebs”, he died on this 20th, his wealth was famous by the tomb he left as one of the greatest tombs in the history of Egypt.

The eras of wealth continued till the 19th family “Sity first” and “Rams Second”, where as it deteriorated due to political and religious conflict, where religious people won and  Amoun saints ruled Egypt for the first time, “Horihour” was thronged a king on the larger bank of Egypt in (1090 before Christ), it became a religious rule, then “Shoushnak”, with Libyan origin the rule of Egypt in (950 before Christ), then came the 21st and 22nd families till (730 before Christ), till the Sawion kings ruled for 15 years, ended with Ethiopians rule, then came the Ashourians to Nouba and settled there.

When the king “Besmatek” appeared, he returned the stability to Egypt, its architectural, artistic and literature renaissance in the twenty-sixth family, it was a temporary return to the Egyptian soul.

Then came “Cambize” to invade Egypt in (525 before Christ) then Alexander in (332 before Christ), who set the Macdounian rule in Egypt till Egypt became a Roman state in (30 before Christ) and the sun of Pharaohs faded with its leadership allover the world, then the Pharaohs monuments stayed as a witness to their greatness and history, their leadership in the humanity history.

Life In Ancient Egypt:

Thought three thousand years, the Egyptian lived to built the first humanity civilizations, in the eras of Pharaohs the Egyptians features were formed, beside his unique arts over the banks of the Nile, sun of the valley, kind clay, the Egyptian was known for kind heart, he lived to worship three things, God, rule, family, he obeys the sentences of god, fears after life , respects the rules of the ruler as the son of God. Agriculture taught him love of settlement, respect of family , the Egyptian farmer plants since the start of humanity, waiting for the flood which marks the beginning of the year in 19 June- in this period the water of the Nile covers all agricultural lands, he permits himself a rest time for four months , after the water returns back , he starts his hard work, from the sun shine to its set, to start the (Berit) season, or growth, thus he seeds and store water, building dams, organizing water for the next coming four months, when the third season and the last (Shemo) or the dry season starts – from mid March- mid July- the farmer starts to rip his fruits.

The Egyptian farmer knows that the land is not his own, but it is owned to the king, but he plants, irrigates , raise cattle, poultry, fishing to feed the nation, for whatever ears and rulers.  As for the Egyptian employee, was the one who learned and became eloquent to qualify him to be a governmental employee, which placed him in a better position social and occupational wise than the farmer.

The rulers encouraged this class specially under the reform program which the rulers of the 12th family adopted, they hired a big number of educated employees to run the state’s affairs, there formed a new class of bourgeoisie   which played a prominent role in the administrative all prime ministers and ministers depend on employees to scatter their power over the country, even more, the employee became the linking point between the ruler and the ruled. There the employee became an example, and every father hoped to have an employee or an educated son, the middle class also is formed of the solders, who are serving the army of the Pharaoh to stop the troops coming from Asia or from the south or to merge Nouba to Egypt .. another category is the clever specialized manufacturers and constructors  who made the great Egyptian civilization survived for ages. The artist were working in temples of schools to perform what is required from them. Some of which became so famous and was asked for by name, like the talented architecture “Amenhouteb”, who built the step pyramid of Zoser, and the artist engineer “Senenmout”, who built the temple of Marine Deir, the tombs were not named after any artiest due tot he sacredness of the work in service for God, these are the persons forming the middle class. As for the third part, they were the labors participating in performing the artistic architectural works, they are not specialized, but labor class who do not get appreciation from society.

They were educating their youngsters that

” whoever do his best , will become a writer, or a reverend employee , with respect in society, whoever fails, will be from the labor class whom are inferiors. ”

Egypt‘s Rulers:

Since the start of the state three thousand years before Crest, and the unified kingdom was formed under king Narmer (Mina) and there came emperors  some set bases and rules for the state, as an example “Sezostrees third” in (1881 before Christ) set a central strong administrative  and political systems to manage ruling the state which extended from north at the Mediterranean sea till the south at Nouba.

The top of the rule is the Pharaoh who is the god representative on earth, the link between the real world and the unknown world, or between earth and sky, he has a prime minister who have a decided role in a document called  “the responsibility of the minister”

 which the Pharaoh state and declare in the minister’s hiring ceremony, this declaration urges the appliance of justice.. the Pharaoh says to his minister:

 “Take the role of a minister, be keen on all what is related to this task , it include aid to all state… frankly speaking, the job of a minister is so bitter not a sweet job.. It do not utter unfair sentences, Gods do not like injustice. Receive people you know and you do not know in the same manner, who is close to you and who is not”.

The role of the minister is to achieve the ethical system, social amalgamation in the country, after meeting the Pharaoh every day, he is to follow all works in the state.. judiciary, agriculture, irrigation, army, police, public system, trade, taxes, public money , hiring employees in various state positions in the 42 regions forming Egypt.

In a certificate written by “Rakhmiraa” – the followed example- in the  Rhine of “Touhotmos third” came the following:

“I have judge fairly between the simple humble man and the one with power , I helped the weak to encounter the strong, I have handled the anger of the vicious man, made the miser surrender, helped the widow , helped the inheritor to get his inheritance, I have never closed my ear against the complains of those who needs something, I have never accepted any bride”.

The Famous Pharaohs:

The history of Egypt was full of the great Pharaohs, their monuments and names lasted forever, and this was achieved by history memorizing them and their great civilizations. There are various names that left a strong impact in the ancient and contemporary history.

Ahmous : Battled the Sextons and founded the ancient strong Egyptian Empire.

Hatshebsuit   : First lady ruling Egypt, in an UN-precedent era in the history of Egypt.

Touhotmos III : Best military leader in the world

Akhnaton: The philosopher Pharaohs who call for god’s unity And worshipping one God, his era was an artistic and though advent in the history of ancient Egyptian civilization.

Tout Ankhamoun: The famous allover the world with his wealth and monuments

Rams II : Best Pharaoh, named best constructor for his glorious buildings and monuments.

Ahmous: Battled the Sextons:

The Sextons invaded Egypt wanting its wealth, because of the weakness of its rulers by that time, they could not control all regions. some regions stayed under the realm of the Egyptians, they agreed to pay bribes for the Sextons, the Nubian rulers took advantage of the situation and became independent.

By the founding of the 17th family in the Egyptian history , which was ruling Thebs, it was the spirit for nationalism, this family gave Egypt strong  leaders believed in the urgency of liberating the country, and throwing out the invaders in a series of courageous wars, they flamed the ambitious feeling in the hearts of the Egyptians, they declared rebellion against Sextons, and who ally with them, there occurred king “Sekenn Raa” named courageous who lead an army of the civilians, farmers, labors, craftsmen in a sacred liberation war, when this king was dead as a martyr, his son “Camose” took over , and was succeeded to encircle the Sextons in their capital “Afaris”, by that time the number of the Egyptian army was 480 thousand warier , it seems that the spirits of the warriors and the civilians were so high under the realm of “Ahmous”. The arm armaments were made of Bronze, there were full troops of knights, military bicycles, pulled by horses.

“Ahmous” was successful in getting the Sextons fully out of Egypt, even out of Palestine and Syria, after getting them out, he went to Nouba to merge it again to Egypt.

Thus, “Ahmous” unified Egypt’s land once more under a centralized rule “Thebs” he deserves to be the founder of another new family which is the 18th family, which is regarded as one of the most historical eras in the history of Egyptand the founder of “the modern state”.

Akhnaton’sun and Tel El Amrna Arts:

He is the philosopher, thinker, looking for reality- as he named himself- the first calling to pray one God, he denied worshipping many Gods.

He is Amenhouteb fourth, naming himself “Akhnaton”, he is the son of two great Pharaohs in the Egyptian history in “Thebs”. His father is “Amenhouted third” and his mother is the queen “Tee”.

Albeit his luxurious life, he contemplated a lot  and reached a very advanced thinking which pushed him to believe that God is one. “Aton”” with the sun symbol, with its rays as hands holding the keys of life “ankh”, he discarded the idea of incarnating God in a human shape. He linked the symbol of justice, truth, reality with God “maat”, no child no wife.

We he took the Rhine, he build temples for praying the single God “Atone”, and forbids praying more than one God. He set “Atone prayers” as a charter to his religion, after five years he realized that it is impossible to convince the religious saints of Amoun, as a result of their refusal to the new religion, he founded a new capital named “Akhtatoun” near Tel El Amerna, south of present Minya Governorate, passed an order to stop worshipping Amoun, he called for his religion for 12 years albeit the strong attack against him, till the movement became weak in his last days, and gradually people returned to pray Amoun once more. It was not know for sure whether he died  in a normal way or he was killed, he just disappeared.

This period of the Pharaonic history, which did not exceed the quarter of a century, which scientists call “Tel El Amrna”, was more glorious when the city “Aoukhtaton” built by Akhnaton being discovered, as the rulers followed him consider him as an out law from their habits and destroyed his city totally.

The remnants of this city assure the difference of this art in the era of Akhnaton than the other eras. The king wants his art to cop with his vision. “Bek” the great sculpture at that time said: “the king was his master in arts”.

Albeit, this was too exaggerated, but it indicated that he got a very particular mind and though, which is too different then others in his age. He searched for truth and called himself “the searcher for truth”, this was so clear in his art, not depicting stagnant objects, and he liberated the Egyptian artists from the ties of routine, and left them to express what they feel in artistic works.

In the previous ages, the artists were obliged to depict the king and queen in a certain way according to set rules, but in tal EL Amena, they were free to express what they want, like showing the Pharaoh in his daily life with his family, in his house while playing with his wife and little girls. In other scenes, the queen “Nefertiti” was seen kissing the king in many occasions. He was the first Pharaoh accepting to let artists depict him with his deformities, without any decoration, as fat and ugly, which made some people thought he was sick.

But his faith in his philosophy made him believe in his vision.

out Ankhamoun   “The Golden King”:    (1347: 1339 BC)

Albeit Tout Ankhamoun took the Rhine while very young and had not stayed long, it is urgent to mention a hint about him as he was famous for the great discoveries under his name in the king’s valley which was discovered in 1992 by “Heward Carter”. As the greatest discovery for the amazing gold wealth.

The king died since 3270 year while he was less then twenty years in a circumstances foretelling that the sun of the eight family is about to fade in its golden distinguished era.

Hatshebsuit “Princes of the Marine Der”: (1510: 1490 BC).

She is regarded as one of the best amusing pages of the Egyptian history, it is full of strangeness, thrillingness, and particularity. She was the first lady to rule Egypt, she was the wife of king “Touhotmos second”, who was known for his weak personality, thus allowing his wife to interfere in the ruling matters, when he died the realm was inherited by his son “Tohoutmos third”, who was young, thus she took throne, in one of the best fertile periods in the Egyptian history, where trade was flowing and war was far, peace prevailing. She was concerned to make good relations with the surrounding countries south and northwards; thus trade exchange for goods was so high.

On the walls of “the marine temple”, she recorded a detailed report for the most huge famous marine trade as one of her achievements. Where the Egyptian fleets sailed to “Bonnet”, as the largest trading fleet, beside the artists and painters who described the countries of Bonet? Its nature, geography, and many other things, this report included a detailed list for the imported goods that the Egyptian ship returned carrying, like, ivory, woods, leathers, gold bars, silver, scents, spices, medical herbs, huge number of living animals, one of the greatest monuments left as a symbol to the modern age is the temple of “El Deir El Bahry”, at Thebs Luxor, it was built by an unprecedented way in the old world, it was built inside the mountain.

This glorious work was executed by engineer “Senonmout” who became the prime consultant for the queen in all matters. , It was said that there was a love affair between both of them, no wonder he really innovated in memorizing her name by this great temple. It was said that the queen was buried in this temple, but no one up till now knows where her tomb is.

History record that “Tohoutmos third” took the Rhine when he became older and made her took side, and ordered to ruin all her statues as a ruler to Egypt, while wearing the crown, albeit this some monuments and statues for her were remained.

Tohoutmos the Third: Greatest History Leaders:(1490:1468BC)

He is regarded as one of the most famous military leaders in history, he founded the Egyptian military Empire, he tended to extensions, after taking the Rhine, and he started a series of military extensions. Reached 16 campaigns, for 20 years, till Egypt became a huge empire. South wards till Nouba, east ward till Ashour, North ward to Syria and Lebanon and the countries of the two rivers, thus the taxes and penalties were obliged and imposed on these countries and providing wealth and good for the country. 

It was said also that he took the sons and princes of these countries to teach them in the Egyptian schools to prepare them politically to be ready for ruling when they are to rule while indebted to Egypt for its civilization. He built many obelisks all over Egypt, as well as the obelisk on the river Times in London which calls “Cleopatra obelisk” and the other one in New York which carries the same name.

He was known also for his fairness, Knoblity trying to achieve luxury to the nation, he was talented too in the military side, with innovative ideas.

He was too advanced for his era, he invented ship that can be dismantled and rebuilt in very short time to carry it through deserts to reach Iraq.

There are a lot to say about his military genius, his plans and his early thoughts which was inspired from another leaders after many years, the historians said that Tohoutmous Third was the first leader in the history who was putting the plans which divide the army into two parts: a heart and two wings.

Rams II : the master of builders: (1290: 1224 BC)

He is one of the most famous Pharaohs, he called himself Rams the Greatest, the historians named him “the master of builders”, as an appreciation to his statues, huge foundations in the entire ancient Egyptian cities and regions.

The era of Rams second lasted for 67 years, he got (111) boy and (67) girls, as soon as he got the realm he leaded military campaigns against Egypt’s enemies, he engraved the details of war on the walls of temples. The story of “Kadish” that depicted the victory of Rams II over “Heythins” was considered the first lyric in the history and the oldest famous war in history.

After being satisfied from wars, he started a new era of diplomacy, through which he achieved a lot. The temples of “Abou semple” And “Romesium” are a witness over his greatness, albeit what said about him that he took over the ancient temples and referred it to him. His era was distinguished for the liberation of trade, and arts, which reached amazement and glory, his obelisk in Paris talk about him, he wrote in it

“. Rams – Destroyer of all foreign nations

Master over anyone wearing a crown

The warier that won million of enemies

He made the whole world under his power

Certifying his power which can not be beaten”

The Egypt Art Method:

For the Egyptian art a certain print and method, can not be mislead in any place of time. It was so different then any other art, his features are featured by continuity over three thousand years, it was a unique philosophy as if created by one single artiest… All artistic works were not signed, as the artist in these times consider his works as a message to history and as service to the Pharaoh god. Still there were very rare cases where the artists were allowed to express their vision. As we see in one of the rarely individual examples which come back to Raamsas era “1305-1080 before Christ” is a papyrus which was keeping in Turin Museum and in the British museum in London, it called “sexual papyrus”, the artist tells us about one of a sex and prostitution houses, he describes what he saw and his experience there.

The Egyptian artists depended in his painting on the flat shapes, depending on the force of the outer line deciding the shapes and bodies, he was away from incarnating and shading, in addition to the use of the third dimension to give depth in the portrait, the Egyptian art in its painting was really concerned by the event in itself not the place or the time. As they believe that they are ever lasting, life for them was just a transitional phase as a way to an ever-lasting one. The Egyptian art was distinguished for its simplicity and compound effects in the mean while.

His use to the strong outer line returns to the Egyptian natural solar lights which it covers all the shapes and bodies, it’s too hard to distinguish the background clearly unless you use this method to express the incidence with its essential elements, the searcher artist for immortality and eternity neglected the time and the place of the painting according to his cult. The Egyptian artist drew the person, a man or a woman, an upright, the shape of the body had extraordinary positions, the face was always painted in a (profile) position, and the eye had to be complete to see with it. This is expressing by the pictures of a “blend” Harper, he did not draw his eye at all, and he left it blank as if he wanted to make sure that there is no eye if we can not see with it. He seems like a child’s drawing who expresses with it the conceptual reality not visual reality or fact, as he knows it not as he sees.

The rest of the drawing of the human’s body confirms his neglected to the visual facts, he drew the shoulders from the forward position, and he showed the two legs in the same level although one is a step forward than the other.

A huge imagination and a big capability of composition and simplicity have characterized old Egyptian artist, this appears in his drawing of goddess. According to his stories and cult, he put animals head on human bodies, he painted Ibn Awa’s head with a man’s body (goddess Sekhmet) and a cat’s head on a woman’s body, he painted sphinx with a man’s head and a lion’s body, another example is the goddess “Not” of the sky, he drew it as a woman in a strange position, her legs and arms on the ground. The old Egyptian artist was good in decoration and mixing between the shapes in a complete work, which needs person with very high taste and a creative person. 

Any way, these were the known characteristics for the ancient Egyptian art, which show some of the philosophy of this art that seemed primitive and talented in the mean while, but it is a religious art in the first degree. Having a lot of innovation, it is not true what was said that magicians built the art of the Pharaohs. The first portrait for the artist while performing his art was there in “Madrouk” tomb at Sakara, being depicted while engraving the seasons signs according tot he ancient Egyptian classification.

 Architecturing Arts:

The Pharaonic Architecture is the mother of ancient arts, as it compiled all other arts, and preserved it. The ancient architect was concerned by death and after life he gave credit to burial and body perseverance, he was the one who express this urgent desire through great tombs and temples. As for the usual houses, it was made of weak elements like wood and mud, to indicate that life is short and not ever lasting.

The knowledge of the ancient Egyptians by the science of mathematics is important in the Egyptian architecture, beside the development in their ideas in the arts of construction, structure and balance. They knew the dates of the sun enter and the light into the temple and they could choose the construction place on the science bases.

The simple tools that the ancient Egyptians used to build such great monuments indicated their real talent, and it showed that it cost them too many effort and time. The elder pyramid took them twenty years to build it, using two million and six thousand square meter of stone. The essential part of “Habo” temple took between 12 to 15 years, using 45 thousands square meters of stone.

As for the labor, there were two classes, one class of the specialists, who got social rank allowing them to build statues for themselves, the distinguished have the right to build a step for him indicating his cleverness, the other class, which was regarded as the lower class, who were assigned, or imprisoned, or who do not have an occupation…

There are some documents showing that such great huge architects were having time schedule, with working shifts, all under the supervision of an overall supervisor, who was really punctual.

It was obvious that the engineers and architectures were having a distinguished social rank, some of which got so many privileges.  Like:

– “Emhouteb”. He is the engineer and minister of king Zoser; he is the father of ancient Architecture, the first to use stones in his buildings.

– “Enini”          Who built the fourth and fifth fortress of king

 Tohoutmos, in Karnak temple, he was the governor of   Thebs.

– “Habo Sneb”             Who built the tomb of queen “Hatshibsiut”,

    and he was the master of Amoun’s priest.

– “Amenhouteb Ibn Habou”    Who built the funeral temple for

 “Amenhouteb third”, and engraved the mammon statues in Luxor.

– “Sennenmout” who built the Marine temple for queen ‏”Hatsebsuit” and her  prime consultant.

Tombs:

The tombs were regarded as the second home, preserving the body of humans and his after life, that is why the ancient Egyptians gave unusual concern to their tombs, specially the Pharaohs tombs, which included their cloths, gold and furniture.

The tombs before the monuments era was a small dig in an oval or circle form with depth not more than two meters. Then dust was to cover the dead, this is beside some panes, cloths and favorite things for him, then the coffins became covered by the branches of the tree then paint by the lute, they developed to construction walls to the hall from the brick. The Egyptians reached to the construction of the mastaba and under it there is a long vault lead to the room of coffin that put on it the dead. There are another rooms to sacrifices, to the statues and the dead needs, Sakkara is considered one of the important places because it is rich of mastabas, and the important mastabas belong to “Caber”, “Tye” and “Nefer Hotep”.

The Temples:

The temples differ from era to era according to believe and religion, but they all agree in the main elements.

Building temples started by digging work according to the kind of land to bear the load, if the soil is muddy, it needs more depth, almost three meters, like Karnek temple and Habo city, if the land is sandy, the deep was half a meter only.

The temples consists of secondary parts for Gods, slaughter places for people’s donations, then places for the residence of the saints, in many cases there were artificial scared lakes where papyrus & louts plant were cultivated.

The temple usually starts with two high towers linked together with a gate. It slopes to the east to allow sun to give light to the temple. The ceiling was carried over posts like palm or papyrus as an imitation to nature. In other samples, the summit had the goddess heads; the most famous is the hathorian post that ends with the head of “Hathor”, the god of art and beauty.

The Egyptians in their calculations, were successful in deciding the light channels from the temple’s ceiling, where as concentration of the sun is just over the king only, to give sense of royalty. In a dramatic way giving fear.

The fence of the temple ends with some steps, leading to the whole of the posts, that it slightly high then the level of the ground, in the upper part of the whole, there was lights outlets, it is a reception area to the saints and important people. Over the walls there was paintings depicting the religious rituals, the best example was in the Karnak temple.

And there are a lot of beautiful architectural samples which lead to know the familiarity with the nature and the harmony between all of them.we had felt when we saw the architectural monuments of Egypt that into the tissue of the elements nature as the mountains, the desert, the green and the Nile as a piece of music between the god made and the man made, the Egyptian artist inspired the form of things into the temples from the different plants and the tree around him because it was grown like it. In Marine Der temple we can see how they got together the lines of the temple construction with the biggest of the mountain, which built in the face, the temple in the middle of the mountain, what is around and what is in the front, it is a beautiful and complex work as we see the beauty of “Abu Sample” temple which is engraving in the middle of the mountain and it became a piece of it. The mountain added the Tories of the temple and it had given it a soul of holiness, this reflects the Egyptian artist sensibility with universe and nature.

The ancient Egyptians used a lot of stones in their buildings as lime stones, sand stone, granite, black basalt, red quartz, marble, glass stone.

The perfect lime and sandstones were used in the outer layers for buildings, while the usual lime stones where used in the interiors.

Stepped Zoser pyramid:

An eruption in Egyptian construction The idea was introduced by the scientists and engineer “Emhouteb”, who was the minister of king “Zoser”, he convinced him of building a step from stone instead of mud. it was the base of the stepped pyramid; it was the first stone building in Egypt, leading to the era of building stone pyramids and tombs.

“Emhoteb” starts his build by the mastaba, it was square, her sides face the four directions, after this build there was another stairs, the one above the other and his roofs was covered by stones from lime, a funeral temple was built in the north side. The rise of “Zoser” pyramid was sixty meters, the group of the funeral temples around “Zoser pyramid” discover a great wall, the thick was six meters, its surface was 120 thousands meters and his rise was ten meters. In the middle there are the pyramid, two temples and some small makeup which received “Sad” feast of celebrations, they are a group of buildings sample and high, on one of the pyramid’s room there are three pictures forms the imagination doors, they represent the king Zoser.

The Pyramid Idea:

The idea was developed from a stepped pyramid to a full pyramid like of Cafren and Snefro; it also developed the senses of the Egyptians greatly towards using stones.

The Egyptians with no doubts reached this symbolic formulation to cope with the meaning inside the pyramid, they found some magic to help the king in his trip tot he other world, one of these images was depicting the king while getting up on a stepped stairs of sun rays tot he sky. The idea behind building a pyramid was to indicate to the refine image of the king in front of his nation.

The Pyramids:

After a century from building the stepped pyramid of Zoser, there started the idea of building the elder pyramid at the Giza desert, as a tomb to King Khofo- fourth family-, it base reached 13 archer, using two million and three thousand meter of stone. The average of every stone weighs two and a half-ton. The original height was 146 meter, “Herodot” said that this pyramid was built in twenty years using 1oo thousand labors.

This huge pyramid is still one of the seven wonders. Around this pyramid there were two cities, one of the dead, in the form of small pyramids as tombs for the surrounding and close persons to the king and another one of the living, for the priests and whose was making the funerals and the ceremonial rites and the cities of labors and artists. 

They cut the stones near the building place preparing and they are pulled by something from wood and rolls and put up by the reel, then the building was covered by the white stones polished. We can’t imagine Egyptian’s genius and skills in the construction of this pyramid and his roofs, there are tones of stones and there is no vacuums between them allow passing a soft piece of paper. 

Into the pyramid there is rooms of the king bury and his coffin, this is beside the vault and there are another rooms to sample the pressure.

Then “Cafren” built the second pyramid named “great is Cafren”, then “Menkara”, built the third one called “my god is Menkara”, “Cafren’s” pyramid consisting of a funeral temple for the saints, linked with other temple for the people to come and worship God in it. The temple is considered important steps in the architectural develop, they use a system of horizontal covering, it means that direct horizontal stones covered the basics. 

The idea of posts was introduced for the first time in the temple of Sahouraa, where the engineer took the idea from the palms surrounding in the valley.

The building and construction of these pyramids especially in the first eras of pharaohs had a big influence in the pharaonic civilization development.

The authority gathered numbers of artists and writers in a complete work for an aim which helped to the development and the spread of this science and this soul to next generations, it was the beginning of the construction of new organized cities, it was a duty and responsibility for the ruler, the pharaoh took his power from the god “Amoun-raa”, this authority is replaced by inherit, so he was considered as the god who creates the history and responsible for the rule. The building was a recording to the pharaoh’s victories.

The pharaoh was interested in building his tomb to keep his name and religious temples considered as gods houses.

They built cities such as Abydos, Mamphis, Dahshor and Thebs.

The posts:

The posts were one of the most important elements in the Pharaonic buildings. It was developed from era to era, it was made of solid stones to bear the ages to come, and it was difficult in Egypt to use wood in building for its scarcity and lack of tolerance, stones posts appeared with the construction by stones as a necessity. Since the third family, they cerate the plant shape posts as an imitation to nature. First they were like palm then the papyrus and lotus, the post became like the trunk and the crown was on the form of a rose. In modern state, the hathorian post appeared, its crown had a form of lady with ears of a cow, it was the goddess “Hathor” of lobe and art.

The Obelisks:

It is a huge building, like the appreciation certificate, it was in the beginning in pairs to be set in the temples and entrances to memorize the Pharaohs, it was made of one stone masse, usually from Granite, on the shape of a post with four dimensions upwards with a top covered with metal liquid, upon its four faces, there engraved the messages in the Hieroglyphic language…

“From the solid granite stones, that was brought from the south, these two obelisks – of Rams II and Hatshibsiut- were engraved, the coming from the river far away can see them. their light glaze on the land, the sun wont be in the sky, unless this obelisk was in the middle.

These two obelisks gave gold as love to desires can be weighed”.

Luxor Temple:

In the era of “Amenhouteb third” (1387-1350 before Christ), Egypt saw a great advent in the realm of construction, while it living in an era of peace wealth and knowledge, while Amenhouteb built in Thebs, the Luxor and Karnek temples, with thousand of statues for gods and Memnoun, which is 20 meters height and weighs 700 tons, the Luxor temple is regarded as one of the most famous temples.  Specialized for “Amoun’s” worshipping, it is so close to the Nile river, the statue of the god was transported to it from Karnak temple in “Amoun’s” feast, “Amenhoteb third” rebuilt this temple with sand stones, it was higher and larger.

It was mentioned that the Pharaoh built it on “a land covered with silver, and set it on a bet of scents”. . The most important monuments and still existing are its protruding engravings.  After wards, Rams second built a in front court from sand stones, in front of the women’s house surrounded with statues made of granite and quartz, with two obelisks from granite (too which one of them was transferred to Paris in Concord square in 1836).

Karank Temples:

It is not an architectural work, but it is one of the wonders of the ancient Egyptian civilizations, it makes you feel that you are in another world, it is a place that combines more than one era in one place with a legendary fearful way.

The great front court – was last built in it- Ethiopians built it, the door Shashanq, from behind the great whole with ceiling with posts that were built by Rams the great “the master of builders”, the obelisk of “Hatshebsuit”, then the granite temple and the festivals whole for “Tohoutmos third”. In the south the sacred lake, and the remnant of the Osorise tomb, then the series of south foundations, the temple of the godchild “Khons” and “Obet” temple.

The French scientist “Champollion”, when he saw the temple he said

” What I saw in Thebs. And all what I admired in the left side of the Nile. Was really trivial in comparison to the giant that took me. I have never seen old or new nation thought like that refined level. In this greatness like the way the ancient Pharaohs”…

The engraving Art:

No doubt that the Egyptian engraver is the best in the whole world, he tamed the most solid stones, he engraved the most huge statues with terrific patience.

As the Egyptians believe that there is an after life, thus the urgency of preserving the body in good shape for the soul to come back for the second time is so important, that is why they keep a statue in the tomb with the same shape of the dead to remind the soul of the person. This is beside all the life needs like food, cloths, and all what he desires for in side the tomb beside him. What he could not take, was drawing in the wall of the coffin, he added divides from his life and works, his glories, his sacrifices, his praise and what he saw it necessary so the idea of engraving and painting was important in the ancient Egyptian believe and not enjoyment, laws and conditions of these arts had to be followed. This gave a special style for the ancient Egyptian artist.  

According to this philosophy, the Egyptian sculptor preferred to make his statues from hard long live materials, they were from one group without any empties to keep the sides and the area intervals. In personal statues – especially of the kings – they followed the ideal style, they don’t appear the disadvantages of the body, and they imaged the person in his young and full of vitality. We find rarely a statue of an old or a weak person because he wanted to appear the ideal picture that the soul can find it when it came back.

It was also practiced, that they color the statues with natural colors, and due to the scarcity of colors by that time, men’s face were colored by red or brown and women’ face with yellow, the hair in black, and cloths usually in white, and the accessories in green…

The statues were minutely made, to the extent, that it seemed real. Their smile was calm and peaceful, very optimistic and far from reactions.

The kingly statues were the good first forms of the basics in the Egyptian art since the old state.

Positions and main forms of kingly statues had been limited after that: they were:    

1- The Individual Statues.

In it the person depicted stands erected, taking a step towards the front, his left leg ahead of his right leg, putting his hands beside him, some times sitting crossed legged.

2- The Royal Monumental Statues:

For the couple sitting or standing, sometimes, the king sitting and the wife standing beside him in the same height  – till the fifth family- then she seems shorter later on.

3- The Royal Triple Statues:

The king between two gods, the gods were different according to the occasion, like king Menkoraa, accompanied by Hathour and Iben Oway, or the king between the gods of south and north.

In the medium state, the art had some changes although the statues kept some traditional reality and kingly characteristics, but they seem different distinguished by worry and hard, the artist didn’t interest by the characteristics of the king and god but by the formal feelings because the difference entered in culture. The medium state monuments suffered from invasions so there is not lots to study, the huge architectural monuments had destroyed as the funeral temple of “Emnemhat third” in Hawara which considered as the most huge building have the word seen since his ages, we just found some stones.   

Since the beginning of the 12th family, there occurred two different artistic schools, the south and the north schools. the south school with the direct objectivity, force in expression, it took the sever attitude of the Egyptian south which lead too many wars, where as the north school, characterized with refine image, it is the innovation of peaceful artists, in the beginning the two schools lived together, the objective and the idealistic, till both of them were unified in one type.

The artists of medium state characterized by the skills in sculpturing on granite specially the forming of steam body and divers of the forms.

In the era of the 13th family, the sculpturing and engraving arts started to deteriorate.

In the era of the modern state, art starts to revive, and there was a wide variety albeit in the same method, it arts were so glorious and subject of study in the whole world, where the statues of Queen “Tee”, “Nefertiti” and “Tohoutmos third” and “Akhnaton”… the statues varied from small ones to giant ones, some of them were sentimental and influent, ideal, real and others were used in ornament.

The invasion of the Sextons to Egypt had an influence for the Egyptians not to be the usual peaceful person as they were, beside the advent in the social life, and the sense of participated responsibility.

By the appear of the Egyptian empire by the pharaohs of eighteenth family, there was another change in Egyptian’s life, an intellectual eruption and the beginning of the creation of a new soul, security and prosperity spread in the country, they are the most important elements of arts renaissance.

All these consecutive factors were to return the spirit of art and life, thus they became so clever in showing the bodies and positions, and they were concerned with sculpturing the legs and hands in an unprecedented minuteness. The art works became full of magic and attraction, the monuments of the queen Hatshebsuit which was saving from destroying are considered beautiful samples for this period. Hatshebsuit statue engraving from the white marble which was discovered in Marine Der temple and is existing now in Metropolitain Museum in New York, it represents the queen in the pharaohs clothes, its carving is rectangle, the waist is narrow and her breast appear the attraction of the woman beside her features full of life, it’s considered one of samples which glorify the woman in this period, she was the queen and the leader.

The art in the period of the unique king “Akhnatoon” was different and characterized, when he called to pray one god “Atone” and his religious revolution, the art was reflected, he called the artists to realism and simplicity in his photos.

The art in his era – as the historians said – needs to special and separate studies because it was free, active and had new positions that were not familiar and not allowed except by Akhnatoon.

After this golden period of the modern state and his arts, there wasn’t any new production of Raamsas and kings prests, it was repeating of types and thoughts.   

The Oldest Statues:

The sculpture started since the old primitive ages, the oldest statues are from the Egyptian art, found in “Hercompolic” for the king “Khaa Sakhm”, most of the other statues were for animals, like the monkey “Touhouty” made of marble, the black statue of the burned ceramic…

With the advent of the old state… the sculpture art started to glaze in the Egyptian art, it was distinguished by Classical idealism and similarity to reality, the best example is Zoser from the third family, in the fourth family, the royal statues became an example for the coming generations, like Kafren statue made of Deweret, depicting the king on his throne, where as “Hore” extending his wings behind his head as a symbol to power and protection. “Diorante” says about this statue: “the respect that seems on Kafren features lets us feel that he is a king even if he does not put the crown on his head, this statue is the most beautiful engraving works in the world.”

The writer and Sheikh-El-Ballad:

Classical idealism was few since fifth family as we see in the square writer statue – Louver Museum – it was famous by the name of the Egyptian writer, the trunk seems little flabby because of his staying and his work which had not need to action and activity. “Elie Four” said about it “what to be astonished of the Egyptian writer his occupation, it’s not a high sample for the middle class but an intermediate for a certain job and class”. This family knew a simple change from kingly type to democracy and to image the persons, there is not lots of statues of the kings of the fifth and sixth families probably because the use of wood carving but the most famous one called by “Sheik-El-Ballad”, it photos “Kaaber” one of the workers of the fifth family in manph. He was a supervisor in the work and he was catching a stick in his hand symbolization of the leader, it is a sample easy and active.

The Huge Statues:

The Egyptian sculpture was distinguished for its largeness and seriously in works, specially in the modern State, some statues height reached 27 meter, the rests are in Tanis city and some of them return to the old state.

The biggest statues are for two pharaohs of the modern state “Amenhotep III ” who was called after that “Mamnoun” and “Rams II “

Rams the Great:

There were so many statues for Rams that resembled him greatly, beside some statues in the normal size all gathered in “Abou Semple” temple, engraved as part of the mountain, he had other two statues, one of lime stone with 13 meters height, and the other of Granite of 10 meters, in one of Cairo’s squares, this statues called “Rams Mahboub Atoum”, “Rams the king of two floors” and “Rams Monto”.

History stated that one day “Rams the second” was in a walk in “the red mountain”, and he found a huge mass of “Courtreet”, which he had never seen like before, it was higher then the granite obelisk, he order to manufacture a huge statue from this divine sun material, this statue took a year to be achieved, the king by himself rewarded the artists and manufacturers who achieved it (Ramosium temple-Luxor).

This pharaoh survived 99 years and he was king for 67 years, he was a legend person.

He got married to a lot of women and he brought 150 child, his famous work was his crushing successful on the Haithin in Kadeshe battle, it was recording in a beautiful poem and artists recorded it by their drawing.

Memnoun Statues 

The two statues sitting for “Amenhouteb third”, he is the most famous and huge examples of the Egyptian sculpturing art. They are known by the name of “Memnoun Statues” in west Luxor, they are as two guards for the way that takes us to the temples of kings and their tombs. Each of the two statues was built from one big stone, for more than 15 meters without the base. “Amenhoteb Ben Habo” who built Luxor temple built them and the stones used in the two statues came from the red mountain.

As a big wonder, in year 27 before Christ, there was a sever earthquake shacked the area of Thebs, and it lead one of the two statues to split into two pieces, since then, the splinted statue is delivering a sound in done as if someone suffering from pain, it became the talk of the whole world and many people came to see this miracle. This phenomenon disappeared when “Septimos Sefiros” decided to reform the statue.

Sphinx

The statue and symbol, that the ancient Egyptians invented to protect their tombs from invaders, it is the body of a lion, with the head of a human, there are too many of the sort, but the most famous is the Sphinx available in Giza beside the three pyramids as a protector throughout history…

It is one of the most obvious example for the greatness of the ancient Egyptian sculpturing, some said that the face of the is statues is the face of king “Kafren” himself, who order to have a lime stone statue with height reaching 70 meters, with the purpose of guarding the western allies where sun is not existing… This statue was symbolic for the power of the lion that frighten the outlaws, where as it protects the good souls…

The pharaohs represented himself and his divine power by some lions o protect his temple, all of them have lion bodies sometimes by human’s head and sometimes by ram’s head, they symbolize the strong god protector.

Charming. Nefertiti.

The great queen Nefertiti, the wife of “Akhnaton”, who had a great position in the Egyptian history, and her famous statue is one of the best examples for “the portrait” statues in the history of the Pharaohs, it is displayed in the Egyptian museum in Berlin, albeit queen Nefertiti had a lot of pictures and statues, where as this statue is so particular and rare, with all the aesthetic elements that gathered in it. This minute balance between the head and the crown, her distinguished neck and shoulders, this lively soul that comes out of the statue from its various axes…

The first thing that takes vision is the noble warm look from her beautiful hazel eye. With the pure crystal layer over the eye giving a natural outlook… The nose line ends with two quite lips with calm smile, a feminine chine so minutely made, over her head the unique crown with no similar.

From her face features, we observe that the queen has 30 years old, she is mature, fresh and her long has a stream and slender line. On her breast there is a wide collier decorated by traditional units common in Akhnaton architecture art, they are beads on form of color vegetable plants.

In general, the artistic formation expresses and the attractive of the character of the queen. Many persons fall in love with this statue.

The Russian Egyptologist Dr. Perpelikin, in describing this personality.

 “With no doubt that the artist who was successful in memorizing this beauty and the fresh features, had succeeded in expressing the deep characteristics of greatness inherent in the strong demanding personality of the queen”.

The German Professor “Anthes”, said that,

 “the statues seems as a living picture expressing all what lies in the queen’s personality of force and beauty. It seems there is a spiritual aspect, expressing the strong smartness, that this soft smile is showing, integrating with the eye, imposing the effect on whoever looks to the statue”.

In her period, the queen “Nefertiti” was a strong leader beside her great husband “Akhnatoon” who loved her, appreciate her and married her in the end of the first year of becoming king or in the beginning of the second year. She born 6 girls, she believed in Akhnatoon message and supports him. In a picture of Tal-El-Amarna, her husband described her as

 “she is beautiful, she is happy with her crown which has two feather, the person enjoy when he listens to her, she has a great love and god of two floors is happy to create her.”

She was also described in another occasions by

“she is pretty, she has a beautiful love, whose the king loves her, she is the lady of the happiness and the lady of all the lady.”

The name of “Nefertiti” means the beautiful is coming and she was called in the sixth years of her husband power “Never Nevro Atone” that means “the beautiful as Atone’s beauty”.

The subject of the origin of the name of “Nefertiti” is still discussing and searching, some scientists believe that she came from a foreign family that worked in the palace of the king “Amenhoteb third” and she had an Egyptian name.

Painting:

In the instructions of “Beta Houteb”, he said “no limits to art, no artist reached perfection.” it is a true saying to all eras. Albeit this, the Egyptian artist battles to reach eternity, the contemplator tot he walls of the Pharaohs tombs, feels that life returned to these dead…

If we see the painting and the pictures of ancient Egyptians in general, we find three forms of artistic expression:

1- Direct Expression. 

Used for depicting the daily life and natural scenes, in a realistic way, without ornament. 

2- The Philosophical expression.

 This was used to depict the funeral rituals in particular.

3- symbol expression.

 Used in depicting legends and the other world…

Painting was an art that had relative freedom more than engraving in his subjects and ways; it was joining by general philosophy and laws. 

It depicted man and woman in idealistic way, ignoring the natural lengths, organizing it according to rank, depicting men as so powerful and strong, while women as feminine and slim…

In general, ancient Egyptian humiliated the painting formation in his modern meaning like the perspective laws and the third dimension, he ranked his persons, his actions and his symbols with the humiliation of the place and the moment of the painting of a universal and eternal action.

The Painting & Drawing Tools

The Egyptian artist knew the colors, even more the colors were too sticking and constant, even after ages and ages.. The number of colors were to few, albeit is high  quality, it did not exceed five colors.

The black die was made of carbon, the red of red mud, or water iron oxide, for the outlining of the drawings before starting. They knew the composition of the white color which used in the clothes, the yellow in the color of the skin of women and the blue specially the color of the nil and the blue war crown that the pharaoh wear it.

The stabilizing elements were made of the glue plants dissolved in water which were added to the colors to make it more constant   , they were using “the palette” for mixing the colors before usage..

Drawing

Drawing is depicting an object using a material or tool on a certain surface, the differentiation between the art of drawing and depiction is so difficult in the ancient Egyptian art. The Egyptian artist depended on the strong outer lines deciding figures, and not incarnating the objects by shades and lights.. The nature of Egypt is also sunny, thus it was reflected in the arts.

It was discovered that there were some scatches used as a preparation step for executing huge works. For the wall works, they were drawing first by the style of the squares which limit the rapport, they had some laws then they were colored or dig as a painting work.

The taster of the ancient Egyptian art can find some signs prove the artist freedom in the artistic expression although the formal rules specially in his preparative drawings or his informal works, they also prove its capacity, its skills and its understanding to the nature.

The drawing art was not an art in itself, but a preparatory  art for other arts to be done, thus it is the base of building other arts, it was the first artistic line to be taught to the beginners .. the main source for studying this art – in its preliminary form- represented in this scatches, and quick drawings, the trial lines that were found drawn over the surfaces of lime stones panels and panes, some trial works were discovered in the upper Egypt places back to 15 thousand years, were animal drawings were made.

In the end of fifth thousands before Christ, when the life was established in the nil valley and the agriculture appeared, the pottery vessels and tools, step by step, they decorated this vessels and drew on them before or after burning to decorate or protect them from evil forces or they wanted the pleasure. The drawing in this period was characterized by the cube style like the primitive African art and decorated by using geometric forms and lines, drawings joined to gods, drawings of the nil and shapes appeared with the evolution of ideological thought.

When Egypt has been united, the period of families began, the Egyptian civilization and Hiroglyphe appeared, the main rules for painting and drawing specially of the kings were put, Hiroglyphic letters completed the drawing to explain it or recording its occasion.

Egyptian art was characterized by his constancy which distinguished it of all ancient world’s art because of the strong thought of the Egyptians and his artists in its principles.

Drawing & Sculpturing :

The drawing art was the base line for other arts, the sculpturing works with all its kinds were based on the drawing talent, the sculpturing was divided into two kinds, one protruding and the other engraved.

– The Protruding Sculpturing  :

It is to be applied after preparing the surface for the place where work to be done, The comprehensive drawings are to be laid according tot eh preparatory drawings, then the spaces surrounding the drawings are to be illuminated, to show the shapes in a protruding way , this process takes a lot of time and effort…

The Engraving :

Where the forms are sculptured in more depth then the surface level, thus the surface level becoming higher than the drawing… in both cases drawing should be used to set the original design, which was done by the same artists or another one, or it can be modified by the work’s supervisor.

To achieve quickly, there were beginner sculptures to illuminate the space around the drawing, which do not need super cleverness, then a more clever artist comes to perform the minute work that requires talents and experience. The best example which explain to us the protruding sculpturing for the wall pictures in the tomb of the minister “Raamoza” – the eighth family – it is in Tibba coffin, we can see in it all the steps from the main lines drawing by the artist in red, their correction by another artist had more experience, the remove of the area around the picture and leave the drawings without any details. Some of them were complete but it is considered a wonderful example for drawing and sculpturing in modern state.

As for the engraved  statues, with three dimensions, it is so different from the wall sculpturing, whether from the phases or the execution…

We can trace the phases of the incarnated sculpturing through the incomplete statues…It starts by choosing the right stone.. where the artists see he can implement his work on.. this needs experience, as if seeing the artistic work before its birth. Then the painters put the generals outlines on the surface of the stone and empties what around to be in the end a general masse for the object or the body of the person, then the details and features are engraved, probably the sculpture needs to draw the general guides lines on three sides of the stone – the face and the two sides – instead of the face only or to redraw the guides lines to guide him in another step, as the engraving of the face of Abu Semple temple. 

This innovative work beside effort and patience in using the simple tools to tame the most strong stones, need sense of imagination to imagine the work before its birth.

The cooperation of efforts of some artists needs a coordination in experiences and knowledge, the work will seem complete as if it has formed by the hands of a skill artist.

The Ironic Drawings

Albeit the seriously in the ancient Egyptian drawing works, there were a lot of sarcastic ironic kind of drawings. .. No wonder, as the Egyptians were known for their kind heart and tendency to laughter and good sense of humor, the ability to make fun of the diverse positions, even through indirect inclination to a certain meaning, The fertility imagination which appeared in his stories, his legends and his skills in using the symbol 

One of the best examples for this sarcastic works was what was drawn over the walls of Hatshibsiut’s temple, depicting king and queen of “Bonet”, she was depicted as very fat woman with short legs and a donkey carrying her. The comment recording by Egyptian artist on the donkey “the donkey carrying his wife” (the king of Bonet wife), maybe he wanted to congratulate the donkey for this heavy carrier.

In a papyrus, we see a drawing of a lion playing with a doe, this expresses the diverse positions, the lion symbol the Egyptian leader with the doe its prey, it proves the weakness or it symbolizes the victory of the lion. 

Another example for the sarcastic works was for cats standing to salute a rat, while sitting in luxury wearing the cloths of the great people .. It is a symbolic picture, it express the divers position in the society, it corresponds with a literature message sent to the pharaoh to complain about the corruption in the society, it says “the servants and slaves took the power, thieves and ropers were spread and the nobles are afraid”

The drawing & Writing

The letters of the ancient Egyptian writing is based mainly on pictures, it is a group of pictures and forms, with an added symbols of expressions to indicate sounds, thus the written language depends on drawing the picture that expresses the ideas and sounds.. the writer should be a painter mainly.

Ancient Egyptians began to know the writing before families to attempt information by signs or symbols.

The language depended mainly on two kinds of symbols and marks:

1- Picture or symbol indicating the meaning of an object, it is an idea and not a word.

2- The symbol used to depict a word or part of a word, it is letters with sound indicators..

In the beginning the Hieroglyphic language was used to write religious texts, it means “the sacred drawing”, then it was used later to express the other various subjects, then another kind of writing was introduced called “Hieratic”, used at the end of the old state, in the last century there was a third type called “Demotic”, and it was the simplest one …

Literature arts

It was an amazing discovery to the whole world, when the chance came to realize its meaning and artistic way it was written in, they were clever in the narrative and lyrical literature. They had skills in different parts of literature like poetry, story, drama, theatre and songs. They were eloquent and fluent

Drawing

Drawing is depicting an object using a material or tool on a certain surface, the differentiation between the art of drawing and depiction is so difficult in the ancient Egyptian art. The Egyptian artist depended on the strong outer lines deciding figures, and not incarnating the objects by shades and lights.. The nature of Egypt is also sunny, thus it was reflected in the arts.

It was discovered that there were some scatches used as a preparation step for executing huge works. For the wall works, they were drawing first by the style of the squares which limit the rapport, they had some laws then they were colored or dig as a painting work.

The taster of the ancient Egyptian art can find some signs prove the artist freedom in the artistic expression although the formal rules specially in his preparative drawings or his informal works, they also prove its capacity, its skills and its understanding to the nature.

The drawing art was not an art in itself, but a preparatory  art for other arts to be done, thus it is the base of building other arts, it was the first artistic line to be taught to the beginners .. the main source for studying this art – in its preliminary form- represented in this scatches, and quick drawings, the trial lines that were found drawn over the surfaces of lime stones panels and panes, some trial works were discovered in the upper Egypt places back to 15 thousand years, were animal drawings were made.

In the end of fifth thousands before Christ, when the life was established in the nil valley and the agriculture appeared, the pottery vessels and tools, step by step, they decorated this vessels and drew on them before or after burning to decorate or protect them from evil forces or they wanted the pleasure. The drawing in this period was characterized by the cube style like the primitive African art and decorated by using geometric forms and lines, drawings joined to gods, drawings of the nil and shapes appeared with the evolution of ideological thought.

When Egypt has been united, the period of families began, the Egyptian civilization and Hiroglyphe appeared, the main rules for painting and drawing specially of the kings were put, Hiroglyphic letters completed the drawing to explain it or recording its occasion.

Egyptian art was characterized by his constancy which distinguished it of all ancient world’s art because of the strong thought of the Egyptians and his artists in its principles.

Drawing & Sculpturing :

The drawing art was the base line for other arts, the sculpturing works with all its kinds were based on the drawing talent, the sculpturing was divided into two kinds, one protruding and the other engraved.

– The Protruding Sculpturing  :

It is to be applied after preparing the surface for the place where work to be done, The comprehensive drawings are to be laid according tot eh preparatory drawings, then the spaces surrounding the drawings are to be illuminated, to show the shapes in a protruding way , this process takes a lot of time and effort…

The Engraving :

Where the forms are sculptured in more depth then the surface level, thus the surface level becoming higher than the drawing… in both cases drawing should be used to set the original design, which was done by the same artists or another one, or it can be modified by the work’s supervisor.

To achieve quickly, there were beginner sculptures to illuminate the space around the drawing, which do not need super cleverness, then a more clever artist comes to perform the minute work that requires talents and experience. The best example which explain to us the protruding sculpturing for the wall pictures in the tomb of the minister “Raamoza” – the eighth family – it is in Tibba coffin, we can see in it all the steps from the main lines drawing by the artist in red, their correction by another artist had more experience, the remove of the area around the picture and leave the drawings without any details. Some of them were complete but it is considered a wonderful example for drawing and sculpturing in modern state.

As for the engraved  statues, with three dimensions, it is so different from the wall sculpturing, whether from the phases or the execution…

We can trace the phases of the incarnated sculpturing through the incomplete statues…It starts by choosing the right stone.. where the artists see he can implement his work on.. this needs experience, as if seeing the artistic work before its birth. Then the painters put the generals outlines on the surface of the stone and empties what around to be in the end a general masse for the object or the body of the person, then the details and features are engraved, probably the sculpture needs to draw the general guides lines on three sides of the stone – the face and the two sides – instead of the face only or to redraw the guides lines to guide him in another step, as the engraving of the face of Abu Semple temple. 

This innovative work beside effort and patience in using the simple tools to tame the most strong stones, need sense of imagination to imagine the work before its birth.

The cooperation of efforts of some artists needs a coordination in experiences and knowledge, the work will seem complete as if it has formed by the hands of a skill artist.

The Ironic Drawings

Albeit the seriously in the ancient Egyptian drawing works, there were a lot of sarcastic ironic kind of drawings. .. No wonder, as the Egyptians were known for their kind heart and tendency to laughter and good sense of humor, the ability to make fun of the diverse positions, even through indirect inclination to a certain meaning, The fertility imagination which appeared in his stories, his legends and his skills in using the symbol 

One of the best examples for this sarcastic works was what was drawn over the walls of Hatshibsiut’s temple, depicting king and queen of “Bonet”, she was depicted as very fat woman with short legs and a donkey carrying her. The comment recording by Egyptian artist on the donkey “the donkey carrying his wife” (the king of Bonet wife), maybe he wanted to congratulate the donkey for this heavy carrier.

In a papyrus, we see a drawing of a lion playing with a doe, this expresses the diverse positions, the lion symbol the Egyptian leader with the doe its prey, it proves the weakness or it symbolizes the victory of the lion. 

Another example for the sarcastic works was for cats standing to salute a rat, while sitting in luxury wearing the cloths of the great people .. It is a symbolic picture, it express the divers position in the society, it corresponds with a literature message sent to the pharaoh to complain about the corruption in the society, it says “the servants and slaves took the power, thieves and ropers were spread and the nobles are afraid”

The drawing & Writing

The letters of the ancient Egyptian writing is based mainly on pictures, it is a group of pictures and forms, with an added symbols of expressions to indicate sounds, thus the written language depends on drawing the picture that expresses the ideas and sounds.. the writer should be a painter mainly.

Ancient Egyptians began to know the writing before families to attempt information by signs or symbols.

The language depended mainly on two kinds of symbols and marks:

1- Picture or symbol indicating the meaning of an object, it is an idea and not a word.

2- The symbol used to depict a word or part of a word, it is letters with sound indicators..

In the beginning the Hieroglyphic language was used to write religious texts, it means “the sacred drawing”, then it was used later to express the other various subjects, then another kind of writing was introduced called “Hieratic”, used at the end of the old state, in the last century there was a third type called “Demotic”, and it was the simplest one …

Literature arts

It was an amazing discovery to the whole world, when the chance came to realize its meaning and artistic way it was written in, they were clever in the narrative and lyrical literature. They had skills in different parts of literature like poetry, story, drama, theatre and songs. They were eloquent and fluent

It was a way for social ranks and class distinction, the most important tool for spreading the ideas and religion in Egyptallover its history..

“If civilizations are fading, then languages too are” so as it was said by “Paul Valery”.. The Hieroglyphic language was the official language in Egypt for 3000 years till the fourth century after Christ , where Christianity closed all temples and it was totally forgotten, till Champion came and solved the riddle of “Rashid’s stone”.

For Egyptians, the language was a way to philosophic expression.

The writer

Learning language was a step upward then farmers.. in the schools, the children were getting too many lessons, they were asked to copy all theses lessons.. till they became eligible for “the writer’s” occupation.

The Egyptian writer was from a special class that rulers gave great concern.. specially in the 12th family, where they hired the educated in the governmental position to record every incident and event. The organization of observing and recording birds and agriculture.

The writers those whom have the ability to formulate new ideas and thought , it was confirmed that the saints were able to write the prayers  which have special charm, one of the most famous religious formulations was “Book of the Dead” on a papyrus paper, telling the story of the other world, and the dark part where any human pass through after his death.. till his return to life once again.. This was beside the morals and guidance writings by the saints…

In one of the saints classification to the social ranks and its importance, he set the writer in summit of this pyramid.. after the Pharaoh and the saint..

In a philosophic work he indicated the importance of this work…

         

   ” The life of the writers were over.. and the scientist

            The forgetfulness covered all they lived during that time

                       They never left any inheritors

                    That can give tribute to their names

                          Their inheritors were

                           The books they set

                   It became the panels of writing for them

                           As their best kids

                      Their works.. are their pyramids

                      Their words.. their predecessors

                     The engraved stones as their wives

                 The great and the poor became their relatives

                       As the writer.. is the leader

                    The age effect covered their paintings

                         People forgot their tombs

                       But their names are still mentioned

                         Due to their lasting works

                      The memory of the book is everlasting

                Be a writer and place this reality in your heart

                     If you wanted to memorize your name

                The book is more useful than an engraved painting

                            Or a well built wall

                it is the alternative for the temple.. the pyramid

                            In raising your name

                        The human  dies and be dust

                        All his soul comes to earth

                       But the book makes his memory

                             Living on lips

                  The writer.. better then the build house

                       From a temple built in the west

                       A castle surrounded by fortress

                      Even from a painting in a shrine

                      The scientist profits were gone

                          Their names did not last

     Unless by their writing which made their names lasting for ever  ”

The Egyptian literature :

After Champollion, the French scientist, has dissembled hieroglyphic letters, the world can enjoy reading samples of ancient Egyptian literature. We can see its quality.

The Egyptian literature has two sides, the first is religious concerning prays, rites, religious ceremonies, legends as “Book of the Dead”, religious texts founded into pyramids and called “pyramids texts” and “Atone prays”. The other is the worldly literature like popular songs, stories and legends. There were literature works written by priests and famous persons to their children for advice and education.

As we read in the message of the minister “Ptah Hoteb” to his son about the role of the man in the life, he said:

“If you have a good origin, form your house, marry a good woman, respect her in your house, let her eat, cover her back and enjoy her all your life”

The ancient Egyptian literature was distinguished in all subjects and fields, scientists studied the ancient literature samples and divided them into stories, novels and advice, ancients had formulated them into editorial, subject and end.

There were theatre works, drama poems, religious songs, love poems and glorify the king. All of this proves the evolution of this literature so early.

The Golden Era for Literature :

The normal thing is that literature is greatly influenced by the social and economic circumstances in any place, as was the case in the transitional and deterioration phases in the Egyptian civilization after the downfall of the state in the old and medium eras, where as the literature that grew earlier was not subject to this rule, the crises was a push to it..

As a unique  example, where one of the Egyptian thinkers from the public took the initiative and addressed this message to the Pharaoh directly..

“You have leadership and wisdom and frankness, but you do not use it

The mess is overflowing.. in the whole country, with its length and width

You feed on lies.. that they say to you

The country is like the burning straw , the humanity is ruined

I hope you feel this piety we are in by yourself”

The another important literature sample in this period “the learning of the wise Ebor”, it is a message or a long text that describes disasters and horrible events in the country. He finished his message by the advice to exit from this crisis, pupils studied this text for a long period.

The Drama

It was known that the Egyptian literature knew the art of drama, – before the Romans- there was a written document in the black stone back to the era of king Mina, it include the first dramatic text in the history of humanity (kept in the British museum in London).. It is a philosophic dialogue between gods, the matter of world’s creation, the universe system for the creatures, it includes also some guidelines for acting and directing of dramatic artistic works…. The historians named this document “the series of the world’s creation”…

This was beside many other drams known as “Theater Papyrus Romisum”, other one which was recorded on the walls of “the Edfu” temple called “The drama of Hors’s victory over his enemies”.

Other kind of drama was introduced known as “the mono-drama”, it was titled “the speech of a sad person with his miserable soul”, it was for a kind person, with refine senses, felt suffocated in the world which is full of infidelity, fake things, he decided to commit suicide, at the edge of the tomb, his soul refused to die , thus there was a philosophic  deep and thrilling monologue between himself around the idea of death and what after death…

The Legend

It formed an important shape in the religious and folkloric literature, the Egyptian formulated his believes, and god stories, even his dreams in eternity and good being victorious over evil, beyond reality and reason.

The most important legend is the legend of night and day, or the trip of death, the passage of soul to the other world till it returns again…

The Egyptian linked between darkness and death, the under world is the other side of earth, this invisible world was like a huge river where the sun ship was passing through as if passing to the sky…

The other world is a great river that the sun ship crosses it as it crosses the sky. Often he painted the sun god in a boat and there is a big snake around him burning the enemies of god by his breath, when the journey finished, god cleans himself in the morning in “Ayaro” lake to vanish the gloomy color of the night.

Isis & Osoris  The most famous legend

The ancient Egyptian legend that the priests composed about the story of Isis, Osoris and the holy war of the god “Hors” against the god “Set” to become the king of the world, it is the symbol of the continuos war between evil and good to control the world, it is full of love, sincerity, magic, revenge, tolerance and human feelings.

“The falcon Hors” became one of the important Egyptian goddess, the strongest one and the symbol of good and protection. “Isis” had a high dignity between all goddess, Greeks knew the goddess Isis and called some cities by her name.

The sincere Isis who was the sister and wife of Osoris lived a happy life, she supported him in right and virtue. When Osoris became a king, his brother “Set” spited him and he killed him by a trick, he presented a fabulous coffin for him, when he was trying it, he closed it.

He cut Osiris’s body and threw it all over the country, but the fiddle Isis resorted to the magic to born a child “god Hors” from his husband’s soul, Hors could become a “falcon”. Isis and her son searched for the pieces of the body of Osoris to bury him and honor him, she encouraged her son to fight “Set” to have the thrown of his father. The war continued for years and “Hors” became the king then “Set” supplied “Isis” not to kill him and she agrees.

The Story:

Sinuhe it was the best in the world’s literature

It was known in the medium era, it got fame since its formation and up till know, it was given as part of the curriculums of school, it is the story of a man called “Sinuhe”. Kipling said about it “this story is considered one of the best in the world’s literature”.

He escaped from Egypt after the king “Emnemhat first” died as he was afraid because he was from close persons to him, he passed through a tunnel to Suez then he found himself in the desert where he was to die from thirst, he was hosted by some bedwines , he lived with them till he became the head of the group. He dreamt to come back to his country, then the king “Senousert first” knew his story and he called him to come back to Egypt.

The story finished by his return and he went to meet the king.

Love Poems

One of the best models in the ancient Egyptian literature is the love and flirting poems. There are poems made by a woman, who was not shy to express her feelings of love..

“The God of sun is happy

The don is born of its beauty

Manf.. with the apple of love.. for the beautiful face

I love to go to the garden

To take a bath in front of you

I will leave you to fill your eyes with my beauty

In my white cloths.. while becoming wet

To go with you in the water

and I shall flow for you

Over by hand a beautiful fish

I will carry it for you

Come.. look at me”

“In another poem where a man lover describing his beloved;

My love is a garden.. full of lotus flower

Her breast is full of fruits of love.. her arm is a pleasure

Her beautiful lips.. a trap for birds

I am a wild goose .. attracted by food..”

Love Poems in ancient Egypt: 

“My love has a unique beauty.. no one is like her

The most beautiful women.. She is the shining

I look to her as a goddess star , in the beginning of the new world

flashing, shining, with reflective complexion

She has beautiful eyes when seeing

Sweet lips.. when talking

With long neck, beautiful breast, her hair original black

Her arms.. better then gold

Her fingers.. lotus flowers

With small waist

Her legs adds to her beauty

Walking on ground in nobility

She caught my heart with her hug

She run the necks of all lovers, charmed by her beauty.”

Poetry and Music

Both arts were not separate by the ages of the ancient Egyptian, the musician can be a writer of poems.

The best poems sung was like the guide to the nation, his soul, call for souls freedom, achieving justice.. pushing to perfection.

The famous Greek historian “Blutarkh” said about this “ancients haven’t any medium to publish the knowledge but the composer poetry”.

The song in the speech that was written as poem meant that words had harmony to appear the word’s soul and its meaning when they said it to arrive easier and more beautiful to the ears of the listening. The poet began his poem by saying “I sing” that meant he will say a poem, the poet was accompanied by a musician.

Ancient interesting by the entrance of music to arts and other sciences, the music was considered a part of holy sciences like religion, astronomy and philosophy, priests kept their secrets.

Religious songs

It was part of worshipping god, most of it was for the god “Subek”, “Amoun”, “Raa Hour Akheti” and “Atone”, usually it used to start by an addressing sentence. It do not express the religion itself, but it revolves around the god himself.

As he said in one of them

“oh Osoris, the master of the eternity, the king of gods, you have lot of names, you have a beautiful appear, he is the first the first god for the two states, first to born, the old of his brothers and the greatest god, he puts his laws in the country, his son becomes a king, he respects his father (Geb) and loves his mother (Not)”.

The characters of these hymns that they make god remembers the names of the cities and the temples like “oh the strong Osoris in manph”, the soul of the body of “Raa” established in “Hiracompolic”, the master of the great hall in “Hermopolis”, the master of the eternity in “Abydos”.

It is a traditional form of the religious literature, it gives an idea of the ancient theology, it is formulated as poetry and composed to sing it.

The Pharaonic Music

It was not just an art, it became part of the religious rituals , it included the dancing drams on the god’s stories and legends.. it was the feed of soul and feelings, a way for refining senses.

The Egyptian expressed this opinion by saying

“when Osoris had the power on the land, he guided it to the community soul, life secret, by his laws and the honor of goddess, he taught all the world, entered the civilization without violence but by using the best art, music and poetry”.

The Egyptian were the first to invent the musical instruments , most of the following civilizations took over the Egyptian musical advent. “Herodote” said after he has visited Egypt in the fifth century before Christ

“I listened in Greece lot of popular songs, they were inspired from the Egyptian music”.

“Plato” in his book “the republic”,

“recommended to hear and get amused by the Egyptian music, as it is the best music in the whole world, it is the best example for any music searching truth and reality.. it is the best example for refining the mind and peace of soul”.

Music and songs in ancient Egypt :

Ancient Egyptian digging prove the interesting of Egyptians to music, song and dance, some of musical groups are painted, these groups contain some players of different musical instruments as Harp and Double Flute. This proves the evolution of the pharaonic music.

Music was a part of their holy principals in the religious, political, funeral and civil ceremonies, the dance was also an expression in this ceremonies.

Music and dance was introduced in the parties of crowning the king “the god”, the presentation of sacrifices, political parties and funeral ceremonies.

There were some popular ceremonies related to music, song and dance as agriculture. 

From the songs

There was a wide range of songs , religious addressing gods, national, life and death, immortality, preaching and complaining.. labor and farmers songs, pushing to work, some phrases from “the eloquent farmer”..

“Captain of the ship..

Do not let your ship dive in sand

You helper.. do not leave any one to die

You destroyer of evil.. do not leave any one to be lost

you helper.. do not help the cocky to steal

You are like who manufacture justice

As  who manufacture the good, ruining every evil

you come as feeding, with your coming hugger comes to an end

you come as clothing, with your coming naked comes to an end

your are like a calm sky after a big storm

you give warm to the cool

you are as fire stews the food, as water satisfies the thirsty”

In another sample of advice and wisdom, the writer says:

“give love, good and bread for all around you

make to yourself forever 

a good name in next generations”

The song of The Harper

It was one of the most famous songs sung with “the harp”, it was recorded on “Haris papyrus”, probably it returns to the king “Aneotef” period, he was from the eleventh family. 

“Here are the generations of humans

Generation after generation

The rule of existence since the beginning of humanity

Since there was god in life

Those lying in their pyramids

The nobles and knights

They went to the yard with others

All what they built of castles

Have gone.. as if not existing

whoever came before them, can tell us about them

So that our hearts should be knowing the truth

Till we go to where they have gone

strengthen your heart

Enjoy what you love while alive

Wearing the beast a god can wear

Take you luck from your happiness

Do not make loosing hope know your way

Take the chance from the happiness world is pushing to you

No one from those who left, came back..”

The Musical instruments

There are too many kinds of instruments made by the ancient Egyptians, made in good quality .. Some of these where blowing instruments, gaiter, rhythm and copper ones, clappers, cymbal, bells, jingles, rattles, sistres.

The puff: as the old flute, probably it was known in Egypt before the families,the double pipe transferred to Greece, it was considered the important puff for them, it was known by the name of (oloss).

The odd: such as the Harp, the famous and distinguished pharaonic instrument, ‏it had lot of forms like the curve and the holder,they knew also the lute and the mandolin.

The copper and rhythmic instruments: they had diverse types like clappers, bells, jingles, rattles, cymbals and drums.

Clappers: they were two sticks made of wood, bones or ivory, they had the form ‏of the hand, some of them were bow and others were straight, sometimes their hand were decorated by Hator head, lotus or some geometric and vegetal ornament.

Clappers with handles: they were two mobile pieces made from wood, they  produced voices when they were knocked by a third piece.

Drums:     they look like we use now in Flamenco dance.

Cymbals: they were round pairs of metals, often bronze, they had different sizes‏(like plates), they had an extremity outside,the voice came from their knock ogether.

Bells: They were made from bronze, some had small sizes like we put in the cow neck to produce voice in the movement, they had different forms and often  decorated by drawings of four legend animals, Ibn Awa’s head, Anobys’s head or a crocodile.

Jingles: they are musical instruments oval, empty and they put into it a dry seed, it produced voice with the movement, dancers put jingles as a decoration to produce a different rhythm in the action, they had different forms as the lion’s head or the pear.

Rattles:they were like jingles, they were empty forms of an egg, a bird,a cat,there were some seeds or stones inside.

Sistres: they were a metallic arc, there were some parallel odd and some small disks that produced voices, they were often made of silver or bronze.

Music & The Science of Horoscopes

There was a strong link between music and horoscopes, they discovered very strong resemblance between the movement and systematic way of the celestial horoscopes and the musical tunes that musical part is formed of. He linked between five planets – in the beginning – Mercury, Mars, Jupiter, Venus and Saturn and the musical stair and its five degrees. When he added the sun and the moon to planets, the musical stair became seven degrees.

They gave for each tune a symbol of Hieroglyphic letters like symbols of planets.

Ancient Egyptian couldn’t arrive to a style to write his music (musical note), so the history didn’t keep these tunes.

Egyptians knew by this way that the seven days of the week, each hour has a special tune: the first hour of the first day of the week corresponds to the first tune…etc….

The two strongest tunes were the fourth and the fifth, it was known by the name of “the harmony”. 

Art of Dancing

It is the oldest art as it is related to body movement, as the human got the instinct of movement inside him, it was so easy to dance, and it also was introduced as a religious ritual.

The dance was a holy work in temples, to enjoy goddess, to be near from them, there was a big relation between dance and music, puff instruments were used in the organization of dance’s movements, in ceremonies the group contained the singer, the Harper, the flute player and the dance.

Dance in old and medium states, called “the beautiful dance”, it was done by servants in houses to enjoy the nobles, some of them decorated their abdomen by ornaments.

Drawings show some dancers, they were sometimes 12, and this proves that they knew the idea of common dance organized. Sometimes dancing, music and songs were combined in a musical drama to tell a story about goddess.

Later – probably in the fifth family – appeared some drawings of the active artistic common dance, the movement became faster.

Applied Arts

The first thing that occupied the humans mind was the ability to survive, he did not start to think in the beginning in arts, trying to control nature and capture animals to feed their hunger, when he discovered fire, he made out of it ceramics to make pots and pans and he dug on them his drawings to decorate them by amulets. Ancient Egyptian art had daily and religious aims; it was linked to a special subject.

The Egyptian civilization was created in architecture arts, engraving, painting, ornament, pottery, furniture, clothes and jewelry.

Egyptians knew the made of marble pans, they were very distinguished in this, it was proved by the 35 thousands pans of marble that we found in the vaults of stepped pyramid of Zoser in Sakkara. We found some pots made of wonderful coral, they return to the fourth family, then they speared ceramics, and then some other colors of pans appeared like violet, green turquoise and blue.

Egyptian pottery was made of two types, the “fiance” was more quality, they used quartz only to make the original skeleton, and the other -more used – was from lime taken from “Kafr-El-Balasse” and “Kena”.

Pottery appeared in Upper Egypt and it was prosper before history, they made the ornament vessels from it, they were hand made, the pottery spare used in “Thiny period

Egyptians used wood to make furniture, ships and they used ivory – in medium state – to decorate furniture.

In the same period, copper brilliant mirrors appeared, they had the lotus form (a famous sample).

In modern state, daily and applied arts appeared, they were prospered, they were easy and they had high taste.

Vessels took new forms unusual, vessels and perfumes glasses were made of human forms, a wonderful sample of cosmetic spoon appeared in the form of a floating goose that her back is empty, its handle as a tip lady swimming and pushes the goose in front of her in the water.

They used glass tools, they were made by joining glass pieces or fuse it, and they knew the puff of the glass in Romanian period.

Concerning the made and the ornament of furniture, we see from “Yoya and Thoya” furniture – they were “Amenhoteb” wife parents – and “Toutankhamoun” furniture, that the general forms of beds, chairs and boxes did not change, they were the same style of medium state except in ornaments that they were exaggerated, beds and chairs had lions forms except some chairs made of ivory.

They dug on beds some drawings of the gods “Bes” and “Tawires”; they protected sleepers from evil.

The best wooden work in modern state, the throne of the king “Toutankhamoun”, there is a beautiful drawing on the throne’s back, it represents the king and the queen in front of him, they put the crown, the sun of  “Atone” protect them.

Ornaments were different, this proves the fertility of Egyptian art – especially in medium state – traces of eyeliners and combs made of acacias – as the comb existing in Louver Museum, they used these tools in funeral ceremonies.

Cloths

They used leather and woven fibers in clothes, they forbidden the wool of sheep. The linen was the only material used in general; it was considered the second important industry in the state.

Fibers were taken in packets, then they took off sticks summate by using a machine like a comb, it was putting on the floor, they pass the packets by it, they left the linen sticks on the floor or they put them in water, then the sticks were hit by wood, they separated linen and put it in baskets.

The Egyptian used the primitive weaving instruments, but they use to use it with high skill, this was beside using the dies in coloring the threads and cloths, they used fixing elements to stabilize colors, the ancient Egyptians used the linen in many things, like sails material, medical dippers, they used this craft to export it to the foreign states.

In 550 before Christ, the king Ahmos Second presented some cloths decorated by wool to Geek temples, it is a recording for using “cotton” for the first time in history in manufacturing the cloths.

Women’s wear

Both woman and men preferred using linen; women preferred using one color that is white, that suits the dark complexion, very few times from yellow or green.

Most of her cloths were long. But from tight to show its structure, or loose to give sense of softness.

Egyptians wears in the beginning had little decorations, she decorated the neck ball and put some flowers over the two breasts, the folds were more used specially down the abdomen and sleeves, costumes were decorated by ornaments like fish peels, beside the use of decorated girdles.

The woman probably put on a simple and luxurious clothe or two clothes, the under is transparent, some farmers appeared in some sights with simple clothes like men’s clothes.

In general, the Egyptian woman covered her body, if some drawings appear the transparency of the clothes, this returns to the drawing philosophy and not the real costume.

Men’s wear

It was just a cover from the waist, which was the main dress, most of the times.

It was one piece and white to reflect the heat of the sun, it rounded the thigh from right to left and left the knells exposed, it was the costumes of the nobles with the beginning of the fourth family, then it became the costume of writers and farmers in old state. The form of the belt changed after “Cafran’s” Rhine, it became more long and large, in the end of the fifth family it became like an arc in the front

There was a revolution in pharaonic costumes in “Hatshebsuit” era; it covered the upper body and the abdomen.

In “Akhnatone” era, the man put on two belts, the under was more long, in “Rams third” a long piece of cloth was instead of the upper belt.

The belt in modern state became stronger; they added leather on the shirt. 

The distinction in clothes

Kings and nobles wanted to be distinguished forever in every things such as costumes, in medium state they limited the imitation of the kingly costume called “Ashandet” or the kingly belt, its extremities were decorated by golden beads.

Some saints were called “the putter on of the Ashandet” to prove his dignity, this law was not apply in the second transition era, between the medium and the modern state, all classes put on the kingly costume, in the eighteenth family some administrator chiefs put on a costume like the kingly belt to indicate the type of the job.

Hair Dressing

               “My heart do not think in any thing except your love

                   I come running towards you with my hair untidy

                             I will prepare the my hair

                             I will be ready in a minute”

These are words that show that the ancient Egyptians gave great concern to their hair styling.

Often hair dressing was in the form of small braids or tuft like the African hair dressing, Egyptian woman preferred the middle long hair, sometimes it was slacken on her face sides to under her face. Men had a middle long hair; they had simple dressings and lines

Priests shaved their head totally.

Perfumes

                “Enjoy what you love while alive

                   Wear perfume on you head

                 Choose the best for yourself”

The ancient Egyptians loved perfumes and conceded it as a tool to be close to god, gods loved nice smells. In old songs, wearing perfumes was a symbol of good deeds.

Egyptians knew perfumed oils and they extracted perfumes from flowers, the most important was taken from enchains trees which grow on Red Sea beach to use them in religious rites, commercial companies went so far to give perfumes as the companies of the queen Hatchepsout and the king Rams Third.

Some religious texts say that the perfumes of some goddess stronger than the perfumes of any another woman or goddess.

Men used also perfumes especially in ceremonies, we can see their traces in Edfo temple.

The Ornament :

It seems that it was more important then cloths itself, it was the real element of discriminate between class, where as quality and kinds, minuteness of manufacturer.

Head’s decoration

The tradition in old Egypt was to decorate the head and the hair especially for nobles, kings and queens.

They knew in the beginning the band of the sailor, that sailors used to protect their eyes from their hair, it was made from “the water grass plant”, it developed to “the kingly crown” which had the cobra or the eagle over it.

The head’s band completed the clothes, their colors were similar, the clear sample is what “Houti-Hoteb’s” girls put on – he was the Ashmonian ruler in Senosert third era – in their drawing in his tomb, and the princess “Nefert” statue – which exists in the Egyptian Museum.

Sometimes the bands were made from natural materials as papyrus and palms.

Earrings

Egyptians knew the use of earrings since the old state, when the foreign traditions spread in Sexton’s invasion to Egypt.

The oldest example was in a tomb of a lady in west Thebs, probably it returns to the last years of the seventeenth family; each rig is formed of four circles.

In the eighteenth family era, they used a type of earrings made of gold, in the form of triangle empty from inside and attached in a form of a round circle, only women used it.

Men used earrings slowly, we found traces for earrings in the ears of “Tohotmos fourth” and “Toutankhamoun”.

The Necklaces

Necklaces completed the costume of ancients, they had different types, their designs developed across different periods, in the beginning they were an amulet around the nick, it was made of polished beads, then wide and decorated collars appeared, they complete the costume, the most famous is “the falcon’s collar”, then they took the form of birds with wings as the symbol of the protector god “Hors”.

Funeral collars were made of colored beads; they had the form of a crown of flowers.

They knew maillots, they look like necklaces and amulets, and they were linked to the religion or the magic for protection, optimism or good. They contained often a symbol, goddess statues or the lotus.

Belts and Girdles

Belts were the important piece in costumes – for men – if the abdomen was covered or strip, it was so necessary to decorate them or use decorated girdles.

The ancient distinguished sample what we found in jewels of the princess “Set-Hathor-Unit”, gold is used as cowries, and some were made of red ruby and feldspar. There are another samples found in Dahshor jewels, made of golden pieces, they were for decoration and fertility. We found some girdles made of beads, they belong to the three queens, wives of the king “Tohotmos Third”.

They were different of girdles that men wear to decorate their belts.

The Limbs Ornament

It was spread in Egypt to ornament the arm with bracelets, in old and medium states, bracelets were made of beads, we found one of them around the wound of the princess “Ashet” mommy in the eleventh family, then appeared solid bracelets made of ivory, gold and silver, sometimes they were laid with colored precious stones. In the eighteenth family, they wear two pairs of those bracelets especially during periods of “Amenhoteb Second” and “Amenhoteb Third”, then appeared the  “bracelet-devise”, it was preferred for kingly women, it contained a name, a devise, they had also the form of a lion.

In the beginning of modern state, there was an evolution in solid bracelets, they could be closed or opened, the most famous belong to “Amenhoteb Third”, “Toutankhamoun” and “Rams Second”, they were used by the same way.

Ancient Egyptians used jewels similar to decorate the leg as the anklet, women only wear ituntil Raamsa period, and they were lines of beads.

Rings used as a devise, symbol to protect for some goddess

.

Jewelry

It was really amazing to know the distinguished level of manufacturing of such kind of industry, the wonderful use of diamonds, metals, the amazing ability to form and formulate shapes.

The Egyptian jewelry was not only used for ornament, but as symbols for power, eternity and to protect goddess, they believed in the magic capacity of jewels, they used them as amulets for magic and protection.

The Egyptians realized since the very old times the aesthetic elements in the colored natural diamonds. They searched for such kind of precious diamonds; they went to eastern and western deserts, mountains, Sinai and Noba.

They knew lots of precious stones as red ruby, white and turquoise; they took it from Afghanistan and West Asia.

Designers and makers of jewelry

Makers of jewels and gold in ancient Egypt took this big quantity – local or imported – and then the industrialization began although they’re simple tools.

Although farmers and makers hadn’t a social dignity but the history proves that the genius were respectable as “Aboya”, one of gold’s makers supervisor in the king “Amenhoteb third” period, he had a big power proved from his tomb in Manph, and his son “Baran-Never” in “Akhnatoon’s” period, he was near from the king and he was employed as “the carrier of the king’s cup”. Many designers was at the service of the king, temples or priests, we found in West Tibba coffin three tombs for three designers, they were rich, they had skills, capacity and experience and they had golden pieces.

We see in the tomb of “Neb-Amoune”, who was at the “Amenhoteb third” service, he practiced the sculpture, he designed beautiful samples of furniture and jewels for the king and his family, there are some sights that paint this artist when he examines and experiments the materials, in front of him there are some makers applying his designers.

“Thoutmos third” supervised on designs of some precious things that he gave to Karnak temple, and Akhnatoon too.  

The wealth

The wealth of ancient Egypt was exposed to robing and stealing allover the history in a sever way. . Some was melted to change its features and reselling it, other was resold outside Egypt, some was kept in the European and American museums.

All what is left indicated about such huge rare wealth, the most special of which was of “Tout Ankhamoun”.

Most of jewels founded return to modern state, those belong to the old state are rare, they had funeral forms. Artists and makers in Saoian period (the twenty-sixth family) assumed the classical samples of old works.

The kinds of Ornaments and Jewelry

1- Jewelry of the living.

    It was known about the ancient Egyptian their love to ornament and jewelry, using it in certain occasions, it was used by both men and women..

2- The Jewelry of the Dead.

    It was very spread in ancient Egypt to use ornaments in the corps with all their various levels, according to this position and level of wealth, even the corps of the poor were ornamented by threads with colored plastic rings..

3- The Jewelry of Gods.

    They used to ornament the statues of gods with jewelry, inside the sacred places or temples; the duty of some saints was to change the clothes and jewelry of these statues. We can sort the huge quantities of gold stored in the temples by the sorting lists for the donation given to that temple…

Amulets

Jewelers were used as amulets and for decoration for ancient Egyptians, to protect them from evil, they were represented as some animals like crocodiles and snakes or some phenomenon as storms and feeding. Ancient Egyptian put those amulets around his hand or his neck, they were made of special materials or diamonds like carnelian, that represents the blood’s color, turquoise symbol of green and happiness or lapis lazuli symbol of water and holy sky.

Beads that have different forms, materials and colors can decorate the original amulet.

Gold was preferable because they believed in its magic capacity and because it’s brilliant like the sunlight, so it was used in amulets making.

They used some materials from nature, from birds, animals. Some signs and magic symbols were famous in pharaonic history “eye of Hors” or “eye of Wad Gate”, this sign appeared with Hieroglyphic language, the symbol “Sa” meant good, “ankh” called now “life key” and “dagd” used for prosperity.

There were amulets on the form of goddess statues for the divine protection.

Gold

It was the first and most important metal that the Egyptians loved and used, for its shining characteristics, it was considered from the divine metals, they were searching for it every where, they discovered the mines and the ways of extracting it.  “Menf” was the center for this wealth and for god “btah” the sponsor of makers, they had it as brilliant pieces mixed to sand, they examined it by their primitive methods which they developed them. 

This beside the gold collected as tax from Nouba and Sudan, for the services of the castle and temples, people exchanged gold in markets.

They also used to extract it from the quartz stone by destroying the rocks, sever heating then cooling by water, after that they separate gold from sand and other metals.

Egyptian gold had some metals as silver, if it arrives at 20%, it was called electron, if the rapport more than 20%, its color becomes white silver but still different of the silver itself.

There were other metals like copper, platen, it was said in one of the message of Tell-El-Amarna that the gold was examined, this proves that ancient Egyptians had a high level in metals science in modern state.

Silver

They know silver but they call it “the white gold”, it was considered one of the gold’s kinds, some silver jewels had a quantity of gold, between 9% and 38% specially in the jewels of old and medium states.

Egyptians imported silver from Asia, silver jewels were more less than golden jewels because the quantity of silver extracting from Egyptian sources were rare, the famous example for silver jewels that we found in jewels of the queen “Hoteb-Hors”, the wife of the king Snefro and mother of the king Khofo.

There are some silver jewels in the wealth of the king “Toutankhamoun”.

The Diamonds

They used the diamonds to decorate the precious gold and silver and electron jewelry, they have chosen it for its bright colors, and there was a traditional trinity in the decoration from red ruby, turquoise and lapis lazuli.

Ancients searched for red ruby in the oriental desert, for turquoise in Sinai, they imported the lapis lazuli from EuphratesRiver zones, which was imported from Padakhshan in Afghanistan. These diamonds were used also as beads, a papyrus kept in British Museum tells us about a job called “the responsible for diamonds”.

Ancient used also some stones little precious as “red jasper” and “garnet” which was a type of red ruby but little pure, these stones have a crystal form, we can find them in the desert beside Assouan, in the west of Sinai, the use of stones little precious returns to medium state.

Ancient Egyptians used a substitute for the turquoise, “the green feldspar” which a mineral, crystal and non-transparent stone, its color is clear green. They used too “amethyst” which is red, little blue, we can find it in granite stones, it was used to decorate earrings and bracelets, they formed scarabs by it until “Toutankhamoun” period.

They used also “jasper”, obsidian which is a natural glass material black, gray or green, chalcedony which is a transparent stone, white, little blue and beryl.

Stones substitutes

Egyptians tried to find natural or artificial substitutes for traditional stones used in the decoration of jewelry early.

In “Toutankhamoun” period, they used “Island spar” which was pure like rocky crystal.

They attempted to create a dark blue material to substitute the blue lapis lazuli that they imported it, they discovered a way to polish “the soapy stone”, and they created too a method to fuse the quartz and mix it by a brilliant glass material.

In the fourth family, they prepared a lazuli crystal material, it was blue from copper derivations and silicate of calcium, it was called “Egyptian blue”.

In the fifth family, they prepared “the fret”, it was a type of pure glass, and they used it in beads.

They knew the manufacturing of glass in the beginning of the modern state, the oldest examples return to “Tohotmos Third” period; they were interested in this material and called it “dissolving stone”. 

The Symbol and Believe

The tombs were full by scenes depicting the dead inside the glories of his first life, so as not to be deprived from any of the things which were for him in his life. Besides all the praying, good deed which he may be proud of in the day of doom. Where as the walls of temples depicting the rituals and no daily life scenes, some stories of “divine kingly birth” which composed by some pharaohs who hadn’t a kingly origin to be near from the people by saying that the king was born or married a god.

It was known about the tombs scenes its organization according to set rules and norms, where the drawings related to daily life were over the wide right and left walls to the entrance, where as the funeral rituals in the long corridor leading tot he burial place, at the end a place for the statue of the dead and his wife.

The drawings over the walls had indications and deep religious though behind it, when they drew into the coffins of some nobles during they subdue “the hippo”, it isn’t a hunting scene but the subdue of the evil power, it is an experience that the man should succeed to pass his soul from hill doors and reach the eternity. The same meaning the sight of the birds hunting and cut up their canines, in another famous sight we see the mine of the coffin who was hunting by his spear two big fishes. Scientists say that they symbolize the suffix and prefix dead soul which will have it when he will arrive to eternity.  

Primitive Wisdom..

The weird thing in this art that it was said it is primitive.. it is true it is so simple, but too complicated in the mean while, whenever coming close to it, you feel its wisdom, for its charm, philosophy, it is like jewelry..

In the ancient Egyptian art there was an unusual ability of expression and compound elements, using symbolic, surrealism and metaphysics.

In its outer strong lines, features like the fierce schools in the contemporary arts, in the beginnings of the sculpturing art, there were cubic amazing simple elements…….. “Andree Lot”, the French artists backed the greatness of this art after visiting Egypt and viewing its arts and monuments, this what made the Egyptologist “Jack Fandee” saying..

 “We should admit that the ancient Egyptians were the leaders in the cubic and fierce schools, they are the first who innovated the silent nature”…

He made a comparison between the artistic works of the ancient Egyptians and the modern artists like Van Gokh, Picasso, Brouk and Douffy.

The Egyptian artists depicted things as he know it according to his believe .. not as he see it, like what children do in their drawings, or like what Pecasso did in his depiction to faces, and they humiliated the painting of the third dimension and the perspective as the modern artists.

According to this vision, he drew the same objects in two different perspectives, the perpendicular and the vertical together, to give the reality of the object in full, as a profile view.

The taste of the Egyptian art shouldn’t apply the Greek or the Romanian classical rules to evaluate an art has his special classical rules.

If we evaluate it and taste it from feeling side, we can say that it is an attractive art, by the time we can see by its seeing.

God’s Depiction

The Egyptians recognized god since they know life, gods are the elixir of life, water, mud, sun, moon, health, happiness, allowing seasons to come back, allowing life death and after life.

Gods in Egypt are invisible, but there are symbols for it, it  exists in the whole world and in their daily life, it is so moody, pushing worry to the Egyptians, The Egyptians depicted Gods in the form of fierce frightening animals .. The forgiving god, coming with the Nile bearing fertility and water, the cow, symbol of masculine features, the pull symbol of power and aggression… The Egyptians were controlled by their legendary thinking, in which he expressed his imagination, he imagined the sky in the form of a cow because he joined between the pierce of the cow and the sky and he didn’t look at the another similar sides which have lots of differences, he painted the land as a man lying down and called “Geb” then he drew the god of the sky “Not” as a lady sympathizing her husband the land god.

And between them the space or the god “Sho” getting up his hands to the sky, as the Egyptians considered the sky and the land as gods, he considered “the nil” as god too, he represented it in a complex form, he painted it in a form of a person having a beard, a body, a woman breast and over his head there was aquatic plants.

The sun “Raa” it was depicted as a golden cow, then in the form of a child that is born in the day and gets old in the night, in Akhnatoun’s era it was depicted as a full cylindrical shape- as a symbol to eternity.

The Pharaohs Gods were too many, and it was too difficult to sort them out, the scientist has chosen the most of important of which.. “Betah”, menf’s god, the artists and manufacturers god, he was depicted as a human with bear head putting his arms crossed on his breast and holding his wipe .. “Hathour”, “the eye of sun”, the goddess of love.. “Isis” one of the important celestial goddess, the holy crocodile (Subek), Ibn Awa (Anobys) the coffin guard and the holy cat “Bastete”.

Hors.. The God Of Gods

The most famous Egyptian god, the falcon Hors, symbol for  and the space, taking sun and moon as his eyes, sometimes he was the sun, the god of gods and the god protector, his name became the refuge to the names kings and pharaohs to be protected by it, he is the strong god “Amone”.

The legendary stories about the war between “Hors” and “Set” that preserved the universe balance, as conflict between good and evil, light and dark, by time there was the legend of “Isis and Osiris”, saying that Hors is the son of “Isis” wife of “Osiris”, that his brother “Set” killed him to take the universe throne, Hors battled with him till he returned the rhine.

Hathour Goddess

The best and most loved gods to the Egyptians, they blended by it and by its statues, some posts of the temples, their statues have the head of a woman and the ears of a cow over them, it is the goddess of love and beauty, and arts too, the artist considered her “the goddess of deserts” where they get their precious  metals, stones , her name was related to jewelry.

The Sacred cat “Bastete”

It was known in the ages before history, it is a kind of cats seen usually beside the deserts, names “Shaus”, it a fierce hunter, with short tail, with fat body, tending to aggression,it was mentioned in the death book, it protects man against snacks ..

The tamed cat appeared lately , since the medium state the cat started to be depicted on the walls of tombs, the first preserved body was for this animal.

If we come back to the sights of Tibba tombs, we find lot of pictures to the tomb own and his wife when they receive the introduces given to the dead, there is a fat cat under their seats, it has long ears and eats a fish. Probably this cat symbolizes the protector god, the goddess cat appeared in a form of a black cat in lot of statues, sometimes it was painting as a woman has a cat head.

The Book of The Dead

It is a group of papyrus papers named  “Anee Papyrus”, after the name of the person upon which the papyrus is recalling the story.. throughout death and the soul’s trip to the other world while presenting donations to gods , then weighing its heart to know the purity of the dead’s heart, this is in the attendance of “Hors” the God of gods.

It was called “the book of the dead”, and kept in (British Museum), it is a religious literature.

From the part of the life after death, he says:

” welcome the one coming from the moon, to grantee to Osiers that he will be clear , to make him still in the sky.. To make the world of philosophy open the doors for him, to watch that Osiers will come in the day light to create what he wants on earth between the livings”.

In another part, he prays to god saying:

“Oh holy material which all forms of life come from it, you sent the word, the land keeps silent, you are the only one lived in the sky in the beginning, before the creation of the land and mountains.”

The soul wants to become a golden falcon:

“I hope to get up like a golden falcon, from its egg, I hope to fly like a falcon has seven wings, I hope to get up from a boat “Sektet” and my heart come to me from the east mountain, I hope to get down in the boat “Adet”, all come to me and meet me, I hope to get up like the beautiful golden falcon and the head of phoenix.”

Atone Prayers:

It is the deep rare religious and artistic examples in the Pharaohs history; it expresses “Akhnatoun’s” faith in the singleness of God, his extensive knowledge about life’s subjects, beside the sensitive sense of beauty and its integration… he said

What a beauty when you shine in the sky

Living Atone. Creator of life

When you glaze in the East horizon.

You fill earth with your beauty

You are beautiful and great

Your light is raised over every land

Your rays hug the universe, and all creatures

No one know your way

You created the outlet in the women’s body

You created the sperm in the back of man

You created the embryo in the womb of the mother

You calm him, so he do not cry

You take care and feed him till he is born

You give life breath for all creatures

Since they are born

You open their mouths to feed them

The small chick when becoming in the egg

Giving ability to breathe

When times come

You give him ability to break the egg

Singing walking on earth

You made seasons differ

For all creatures to enjoy

You created winter. And cold

You created hot and summer…

That comes from where you are

You created the high skies

For yourself to look from

To look to all what you created and made

You alone shines in the image of living Atone

Albeit you shine from a very far distance

You are close to every one

Million of things and forms and pictures

You created alone

Cities, villages, fields, roads, rivers

All eyes look towards you to see you

You are Day Atone

You look from the sky to every land… 
 Atone Prayers 

 

 

 

 

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